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  4. 形容词的比较级,形容词的最高级形容词被动语态it 的用法固定搭配

句型转换。1. Mr. Li spoke for over an hour at the meeting. (改为同义句)Mr. Li spoke for ______ an hour at the

一、题文

句型转换。
1. Mr. Li spoke for over an hour at the meeting. (改为同义句)
Mr. Li spoke for ______ an hour at the meeting.
2. Peter was so tired that he couldn’t continue running. (改为同义句)
Peter was ______tired______ continue running.
3. Reading in the sun isn’t good for our eyes. (改为同义句)
Reading in the sun______ ______ ______our eyes.
4. Jane spent 3 hours finishing reading this magazine.(改为同义句)
______ Jane 3 hours______ reading this magazine.
5. The story was written by a middle school student.  The story is popular in schools. (合并为一句)
The story ______ by a middle school student is popular in schools.

考点提示:形容词的比较级,形容词的最高级,形容词,被动语态,it 的用法,固定搭配

二、答案

1. more than  2. too; to  3. is bad for  4. It took; to finish  5. written

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《句型转换。1. Mr. Li spoke for over an hour at the meeting. (改为同义句)Mr. Li spoke for ______ an hour at the》这道题主要考你对 形容词的比较级,形容词的最高级形容词被动语态it 的用法固定搭配 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:形容词的比较级,形容词的最高级,形容词,被动语态,it 的用法,固定搭配

考点名称:形容词的比较级,形容词的最高级
  • 形容词的比较级:
    当两种物体之间相互比较时,我们要用形容词或副词的比较级;
    当相互比较的物体是三个或三个以上时,我们就要用形容词或副词的最高级。
  • 形容词的比较级和最高级的特殊变化规则:
    一、少数单音节词前面加 more-, most- 构成比较级和最高级
    tired ---- more tired , most tired
    fond ----- more fond , most fond
    glad ----- more glad , most glad
    bored ---- more bored , most bored
    pleased---- more pleased , most pleased

    二、不规则变化
    good /well------- better ,best
    bad/badly/ill------ worse , worst
    many/much-------more , most
    little ------ less , least
    far ---- farther, farthes / firther , furthest
    old ---- older , oldest (GA)
        ---- older , oldest / elder , eldest (GB)

    三、下列形容词和副词的比较级和最高级有两种形式
    cruel----- crueler,  cruelest /more cruel , most cruel
    strict---- stricter , strictest /more strict , most strict
    often----- oftener , oftenest / more often , most often
    friendly------ friendlier , friendliest / more friendly , most friendly
    clever----- cleverer, cleverest /  more clever , most clever

    四、下列形容词和副词没有比较级和最高(即表示”最高程度”或”绝对状态”的形容词和副词没有比较级和最高级)
    empty , wrong , perfect , unique , extreme , excellent , favourite (GB)/ favorite (GA) , true , right , correct , extremely ...

  • 形容词的比较级和最高级用法:
    形容词比较等级用法:
     1.没有比较对象时,用原级。
     I have a new computer.
     2.两者比较,程度相同。
     A+系动词+as+adj.+as+B.
     Our school is as beautiful as theirs.
     3.两者比较,程度不同。
     A+系动词+not as+adj.+as+B.
     The weather here is not as hot as that in the south.
     4.A比B更…
     The earth is bigger than the moon.
     5.比较级前可以用much,even,still,far,a lot,a little,a bit,any等修饰。
     Your room is much bigger than mine.
     I’m a little shorter than her.
     6.用比较级可以表示最高级含义:
     John is stronger than any other boy in his class.=John is stronger than any of the other boys.
     两者不属于同一范畴,不能用other.
     Chongqing is bigger than any city in Sichuang.
     7.“比较级+and+比较级”   表示“越来越…”
     China is becoming more and more beautiful.
     Days are getting longer and longer.
     8.用the+比较级,the+比较级  表示”越…就越…”.
     The busier he is, the happier he feels.
     9. Which/Who+is+比较级     A或B?
     A和B哪一个/谁更…?
     Which is better,this one or that one?

     最高级用法:
     表示三者或三者以上的人或物的比较,一个在某方面超过其他两个或多个时,用最高级,结构是
     主语+系动词+the+形容词最高级+of/in短语。
     This story is the most interesting of the three.
     1. one of the+形容词最高级+名词复数
     它的意思是最…之一。
     English is one of the most important languages in the world.
     2. which/who…+is+形容词最高级
     “…最...”
     Which is the heaviest,the horse,the sheep or the elephant?
    3.最高级前可以用序数词
     The Yellow River is the second longest river in China.
  • 形容词的比较级和最高级的变化规则:

    构成 

     原级

    比较级 

    最高级 

    一般加er,est

     tall

    taller 

    tallest 

    以字母e结尾只
    加 r,st

     large

    larger 

    largest 

    以一个辅音字母结尾的
    重读闭音节,双写这一辅
    音字母后再加er,est

     red

    redder 

    reddest 

     hot

     hotter

    hottest 

     thin

     thinner

    thinnest 


    以辅音字母+y结尾的词,
    将y变为i再加er,est

    easy 

     easier

    easiest

    happy

     happier

    happiest 

     ugly

     uglier

    ugliest 

     early

     earlier

    earliest 

    其他双音节词和多
    音节词,在词前
    加more或most

     interesting

    more interesting 

    most interesting 

考点名称:形容词
  • 形容词
    简称adj.或a,形容词用来修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态,和特征的程度好坏与否,形容词在句中作定语,表语,宾语补足语。
    她是一个好学生,她学习努力。She is a good student, and she works hard.
    这辆自行车很贵。This bike is expensive.
    对不起,我现在很忙。I am sorry, I'm busy now.
    你为这次会议做好准备了吗? Have you got everything ready for the meeting?
  • 形容词的语法功能:
    一、作定语
    He is the greatest writer alive.他是依然健在的伟大的作家。
    Somewone else has done it.别人已经做了这事。
    二、作补语
    形容词做主语补足语和宾语补足语时,可以表示其现状、状态,也可以表示某一动作的结果,并常用在表示“认为,看待”的动词如believe,prove,consider等候。例如:
    The news made her sad.这消息使他感到非常悲伤。
    Don't marry young.不要早婚。
    三、作状语
    形容词或形容词短语可作状语,形容词作状语时,可以看作是“being+形容词”结构的省略,可表示时间、原因、条件、方式、强调或伴随状况等意义。例如:
    Enthusiastic,they are co-operative.热心的时候他们是很合作的。
    Rich or poor, young or old, we all have problems.不管是穷人还是富人,不管是年轻人还是老人,我们都有问题。
    四、做表语
    The ship was adrift on unknown seas.那艘船在陌生的海域漂流。
    五、做主语
    Old and young joined the discussion.
    Rich or poor meant the same to him.作感叹语
    Very good!Say it again.
    Stupid!He must be crasy.
  • 形容词的几个特殊用法:
    most 同形容词连用而不用 the, 表示 " 极,很,非常, 十分"。
    It's most dangerous to be here. 在这儿太危险。
    I cannot do it, it's most difficult. 我干不了这件事,太难了。

    "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..." 表示 " 越... 就越..."。
    The more you study, the more you know. 你学的越多, 就知道的越多。
    The more I have, the more I want. 我越有就越想要有。
    The more, the better. 越多越好。

    " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。
    It's getting hotter and hotter. 天气越来越热了.
    It's pity he is getting poorer and poorer. 真可怜他越来越穷了。
    The computer is cheaper and cheaper. 计算机越来越便宜。
    The more and more people focus on the meeting next year. 越来越多的人关注明年的会议。

    主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。
    This box is as big as mine. 这个盒子和我的一样大。
    This coat is as cheap as that one. 这件衣服同那件衣服一样便宜。
     I study English as hard as my brother. 我同我兄弟一样学习努力。

    the + 形容词 表示某种人。
    He always helps the poor. 他经常帮助穷人。
    I like to have a talk with the young. 我喜欢同年轻人谈话。
    The rich sometimes complain their empty life. 富人有时抱怨他们空虚的生活。
    The police led the old man across the street. 警察领老人横过马路。

    以-ly结尾的形容词
    1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,brotherly,仍为形容词。
    改错:(错) She sang lovely.             (错) He spoke to me very friendly.
       (对) Her singing was lovely.  (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.
    2)有些以-ly 结尾的词既为形容词,也为副词。
    daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early
    The Times is a daily paper.
    The Times is published daily.

    too+adj.+to句型   “太…而不能”
      He is too young to go to school.
     =He isn’t old enough to go to school.
     =He is so young that he can’t go to school.

  • 形容词的位置:
    1.形容词一般放在名词前作定语  
    单个形容词修饰名词时,一般要放在名词的前面。它们的前面常常带有冠词、形容词性物主代词、指示代词、数词等。例如:  
    a red flower一朵红花
    an interesting story一个有趣的故事  
    six blind men 六个盲人
    my own house我自己的房子
    如果有两个或两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词时,则由它们和被修饰的名词之间的密切程度而定,越密切的形容词越靠近名词。
    如果几个形容词的密切程度差不多则按音节少的形容词放在前面,音节多的形容词放在后面。  
    2.当形容词所修饰的词是由some,any,every,no等构成的不定代词时,形容词必须置于名词之后。例如:  
        She has something new to tell me.她有一些新的情况告诉我。  
        I have nothing important to do today.今天我没有重要的工作要做。  
        Do you know anybody else here?这儿你还有认识的人吗?  
    3.形容词后面有介词短语或不定式短语时,形容词必须置于名词之后。例如:  
        It is a problem difficult to work out.这是一道难以解决的问题。  
        Edison is a student difficult to teach.爱迪生是个很难教的学生。  
        This is a kind of flowers easy to grow.这是一种易栽的花。  
    4.用 and 或 or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名词后面。起进一步解释的作用。例如:  
        All people,young or old,should be strict with themselves.  
        所有的人,无论老少,都应该严格要求自己。  
        We are building a new school, modern and super.  
        我们正在建一所现代化的高档次的新型学校。  
        All countries, rich and poor, should help one another. 所有的国家,无论穷富都应该互相帮助。  
    5.有少数形容词,如enough和possible,既可置于所修饰的名词前面也可以置于它所修饰的名词之后。例如:   
    Do you have enough time(time enough)to prepare?你有足够的时间做准备吗?   
    Maybe it will be a possible chance(chance possible)for you.或许它将成为一次可能的机遇。
    6.有些形容词,置于名词之前与之后,含义不尽相同。例如:  
    the writer present 出席的作者  
    the present writer 现在的作者
    7.表示长,宽,高,深,及年龄的形容词,应放在相应的名词之后。
    This river is about 100 metres wide.
    The building is more than 50 metres tall.
     He is less than 40 years old.
    8. enough修饰名词时,在名词前后都可以。
    They said that they had enough food.= They said that they had food enough.
     enough 修饰形容词和副词,位于其后。
     He is old enough to join the army.
     He isn’t old enough to go to school.
    9.形容词else通常放在疑问代词,疑问副词或不定代词后
     what/who/where/when/when else
     something/anything/nothing…else
     What else did you do?
     Do you have anything else to say?
    10.由两个或两个以上的词组成的形容词词组修饰名词时须放在名词之后。
    This is the book easy to read.
    这是一本容易读的书。

  • 形容词知识拓展:
    名词化的形容词:
    有些形容词可以和定冠词连用,表示一类人或事物,这时,它相当于一个名词,可作主语或宾语;
    表示一类人时,看作复数,表示一类事物时,通常看作单数。
    Robin Hooh(罗宾汉) hated the rich and loved the poor.
    The old are taken good  care of in American.
    the+形容词,常见的短语有:
    the old/the young/the sick/the white/
    the black/the rich/the poor/the dead(死者)

    形似副词的形容词:
    以-ly结尾的词通常是副词,但是下列词为形容词。
    friendly  lonely (孤独的) ;lively (活着的);lovely(可爱的)

    复合形容词的类型:
    (1)名词+过去分词  man-made satellite 人造卫星
    (2)形容词+现在分词  a good-looking man
    (3)形容词+名词  second-hand cars
    (4)数词+名词-ed   three-legged chairs三条腿的椅子
    (5)数词+名词  400- metre race
    (6)副词+现在分词  hard-working students
    (7)副词+过去分词  well-known writers
    (8)形容词+形容词  a dark-red jacket
    (9)形容词+过去分词  ready-made clothes 成品服装

    含有形容词的常用句型:
    (1) It’s+adj. of sb. to do sth.
    (good/ kind/nice/polite/clever/foolish… )
    It’s very kind of you to help me.
    (2) It’s +adj. for sb. to do sth.
    (difficult/easy/hard/dangerous/usefulinteresting/important…)
    It’s important for us to learn English well.
    (3)下列形容词后常跟动词不定式
     表示情感或情绪的形容词:glad,pleased,sorry,sad,afraid,thankful…
     I'm glad to see you.
    表示能力,意志或推测的形容词:ready,able,sure,certain…
     I’m sorry to hear that.

    某些现在分词和过去分词可作形容词
    the moving story 令人感动的故事
    a moved boy   一个被感动的男孩
    a frightened child 一个被吓到的孩子
    a frightening film 一个恐怖电影
考点名称:被动语态
  • 语态:
    是动词的一种形式,它表示主语和谓语的关系。
    语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
    如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态;
    如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态。
  • 被动语态的构成:
    被动语态的基本结构:
    主语+be +过去分词(+by+动作的发出者)
    ① 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词
    如:Trees are planted every year.
    ② 现在进行时 am/is/are+ being +过去分词
    如:The road is being repaired. 
    ③ 现在完成时 have/has + been +过去分词
    如:The work has been finished.
    ④ 一般过去时 was/were + 过去分词
    如:The story was told by him.
    Many birds were killed last year.
    ⑤过去进行时 was/were+ being + 过去分词
    如: The new house was being painted when I got home.
    ⑥过去完成时 had +been+ 过去分词
    如: He told me that the work had been finished.
    ⑦一般将来时  will +be + 过去分词
    如:The problem will be discussed tomorrow.
    ⑧ 过去将来时 would/should +be +过去分词
    如: He said that the Christmas tree would be put up soon.
    ⑨情态动词的被动语态
    情态动词+ be +过去分词    
    如:The problem must be solved soon.
    Children should be taught to love animals.
  • 被动语态使用注意:
    1. 不及物动词无被动语态。 如:happen, break down, come out......
    What will happen in 100 years.
    The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
    2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: write, sell, ride.....
    This pen writes well.
    This new book sells well.
    3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。
    例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
    see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
    A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
    The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
    4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。
    He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
    He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
    My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
    5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。
    We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.
    He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
    The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.
    构成be+done.
  • 主动句变为被动句所遵循的4个步骤:
    ①把原主动句中的宾语变为被动句的主语
    ②把动词变为被动形式即be +过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持不变。
    ③原主动句的主语如需要则放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现(注代词的宾格),如不需要则可省略。
    ④其它的成分(定语、状语)不变。

    不用于被动语态的情形:
    ①不及物动词没有被动语态
    这类动词有take place, happen, come about, break out, appear, disappear, last,  arise等。
    例如:A fire broke out during the night.
    ②某些静态动词不用于被动语态
    这类动词有have, lack, fit, hold, suit, resemble等。 
    例如:My shoes do not fit me.
    ③宾语为相互代词和反身代词时不用于被动语态
    例如:We should help each other.

    关于主动形式表示被动意义:
    ①系动词(如look, sound, smell, feel, taste, prove等)要用主动表被动,因为系动词为不及物动词,它们没有被动语态形式。
    例如:The building looks very beautiful.
    ②当open, close, shut, lock, move, read, wash, clean, cook, cut, wear, carry 等用作不及物动词且表示主语的某种属性时,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book sells well.
    ③有的动词本身含有被动意味,通常用主动形式来表示被动含义。
    例如:Her eyes filled with tears.
    ④不定式to blame, to let用作表语时,通常要用主动表被动。
    例如:Who is to blame?
    ⑤某些“be+形容词+to do”结构中的不定式通常要用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book is difficult to understand.
    ⑥不定式用于某些动词(如have, have got, get, want, need等)的宾语后作定语时,如果不定式的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:Do you have time to help us?
    ⑦在too...to do sth.和...enough to do sth. 这两个结构中,若主语与其后不定式为to do sth.被动关系,则该不定式通常用主动形式表示被动意义(有时也可直接用 被动式)。
    例如:The writing is too faint to read.
    ⑧be worth后的动名词要用主动表被动。
    例如:This movie is worth seeing.
    ⑨在need, want, require等少数表示“需要”的动词后的动名词用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The house needs cleaning.

    表示“据说”的三类被动句型:
    ①It is said that...句式
    例如:It is said that thirteen is an unlucky number.
    ②There is said that...句式 
    例如:There is said to be plenty of oil off our coast.
    ③sb./sth.is said that...句式
    例如:Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cancer.
  • 被动语态各时态构成 :

    时态

    被动语态 

    一般现在时

    am/is/are+过去分词

    一般过去时

    was/were+过去分词

    现在进行时

    am/is/are being+过去分词

    过去进行时

    was/were being+过去分词

    一般将来时

    will be+过去分词

    过去将来时

    would be+过去分词

    现在完成时

    have/has been+过去分词

    过去完成时

    had been+过去分词

    情态动词

    情态动词be+过去分词

  • 情态动词的被动语态:
    一、理解含情态动词的被动语态的概念含情态动词的被动语态说明某个被动性动作所反映出的感情和态度。
    初中阶段可用于被动语态的情态动词有“can、may、must、need、should”等,
    分别表示“能够被……”,“可以被……”,“必须被……”,“需要被……“,应该被……”等。

    二、掌握含情态动词的被动语态的不同句式的变换方法含情态动词的被动语态的疑问句、否定句的变化均借助于情态动词完成。
    (一)一般疑问句直接将陈述句被动语态中的情态动词提前。如:
    Mustthisworkbedoneatonce?这项工作必须立即完成吗?
    Shouldyourhomeworkbefinishedbeforesix?你的家庭作业应在六点前完成吗?
    (二)特殊疑问句由疑问词加上一般疑问句被动语态构成。如:
    Whenmustthisworkbedone?这工作必须在什么时候完成?
    Wherecanthelostbookbefound?这本失踪的书能在什么地方被找到?
    (三)反意疑问句借助情态动词构成附加疑问部分。如:
    Thisbridgecanbebuiltnextyear,can'tit?这座桥明年能建成,是吗?
    Thisbookshouldn'tbetakenoutofthelibrary,shouldit?这本书不应被带出图书馆,是吗?
    (四)否定句在情态动词后面加上“not”或“never”即可,但“must”表“必要”时否定式为“needn't”。如:
    Thisworkneedn'tbedoneatonce.这项工作没必要立即做。Thisdustbinshouldn'tbeputhere.这个垃圾箱不应放在这儿。

    三、含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答应保留原情态动词,
    但“must”表“必须”时,其否定回答应用“needn't”、“need”表“必要”时,其肯定回答应用“must”。如:
    —Shouldmyexercisesbefinishedtoday?我的作业应在今天完成吗?
    —Yes,theyshould.是的,应在今天完成。(No,theyshouldn't.不,不应在今天完成。)
    —Musthisexercisebookbehandedinatonce?他的练习本必须立即上交吗?
    —Yes,itmust.是的,必须立即上交。(No,itneedn't.不,不必立即上交。)
    —Needhebeoperatedonatonce?他必须立即手术吗?
    —Yes,hemust.是的,他必须。(No,heneedn't.不,他不必。)
考点名称:it 的用法
  • “It”用法及其句型和固定搭配,是英语语法的重点、难点,又是近几年考试的热点,因此在复习中应给予足够的重视。
  • It 句型归纳:
    1. It is +adj.(+for sb./sth.) + to do sth.
    用于此句型的形容词有:easy, hard, difficult,possible, important, impossible, necessary, good, bad, exciting, interesting, surprising等。如:
     It is necessary to change your job.
     It was very hard for them to walk such a long way in the snow.
    2.It is +n.(+for sb./sth.) + to do sth.
    用于此句型的名词有: pity, shame, pleasure, one’s duty, one’s job, fun, joy, good manners, bad manners等。如:
     It is a pity for you to have missed such a wonderful play.
     It is bad manners for the young to take up the seats for the old.
    3.It is +adj.+of sb.+to do sth.
    此句型中的形容词主要描述某人的品德、特征。能用于该句型的形容词有: kind, nice, wise,
    silly, polite, impolite, friendly, foolish, clever等。如:
     How silly it was of you to give up such a good chance!
     It is friendly of the family to try to make me feel at home in their house.
    4.It is +adj.(+n.)+doing sth.
    此句型中的形容词和名词常见的有:no/little use, no/much good, useless等。如:
     It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
    5.It takes sb.+一段时间+to do sth. 表示“做某事花费某人多长时间”。如:
    It took us half an hour to ride to the town by the sea.
    6.It is +及物动词的过去分词+that从句
    此句型中常见的及物动词的过去分词有:said, told, known, reported, recorded, thought, believed, considered等。如:
    It is reported that the Russian President will visit China next week.
    7.It +不及物动词+that从句
    此句型中不及物动词常见的有:seem, happen, appear, matter等。如:
     It seems that there will be a heavy snow tomorrow.
     It happened that I met my good friends in the museum yesterday.
    8.强调句型:It is+被强调部分+that/who从句
    在使用强调句型时要注意,指人时可以用who或that,其它情况一律用that。如:
     It was under the bed that my brother hid the ball this morning.
     It is Mr Bell who/that often comes and looks after the old man.
    9.It is/has been+一段时间+since从句。如:
    It is /has been three years since we saw each other last.
    10.It is (high) time that sb. did sth.
    该句型表示“某人现在该做某事了”,从句常用过去时(虚拟语气)说明现在应该做的事情。如:
     It’s six o’clock.It is high time that we went home now.

    It 常用的固定搭配:
    1. make it
    (1)在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达
    例  It's hard to make it to the top in show business.
    (2)在口语中相当于fix the date for,表示“约定好时间”
    例  —Shall we meet next week?
    —OK. We just make it next Saturday.
    2. as it is
    (1)相当于in fact,in reality表示“事实上,实际情况是……”
    例  We had planed to finish the task today,but as it is we probably won't finish it until next week.
    (2)相当于方式状语从句,表示“照原样”
    例  Leave the table as it is.
    3. as it were
    相当于as one might say,that is to say,表示“也就是说,可以说,换句话说”
    例  He is,as it were,a modern Sherlock Holmes.
    4. if it weren't for…/if it hadn't been for…
    用来引导虚拟语气,相当于without,or but for,表示“如果不是……,要不是……”
    例  If it weren't for Tom,I wouldn't be alive today.
    5. that's it
    (1)相当于That's all. That's so much. 表示“至此为止,没有别的了”
    例  You can have one more sweet,and that's it.
    (2)相当于 That's right.表示“对啦”
    例  — I guess the key to the problem is thechoice “A”
    —That's it.
    6. catch it
    在口语中,相当于be punished/scolded for doing sth. wrong. 表示“因做错事而挨骂,受责备,受批评,受惩罚”
    例  We'll really catch it form our teacher if we're late for class again.
    7. have it
    (1)相当于say,insist表示“说,主张,表明,硬说”
    例  Rumour has it that they are getting divorced.
    (2)相当于get to know something,表示“了解,知道,获悉”
    例  I had it from John that she was going abroad.
    8. have what it takes
    在口语中,相当于be well qualified for,表示“具有成功的条件”
    例  You can take it from me that your daughter has what it takes to be a star.
    9. so it seems / appears.
    10. Keep at it!(Don't give up!)
    相当于go on,表示“继续做,不放弃”
    例  My teacher asked me to keep at it.
    11. Go it!(Go on!)拼命干,莽撞
    12. Now you have done it!(You have done sth. wrong.)
    13. Now you'll catch it!(You'll be punished.)
    14. As it happened,…
    在口语中,相当于it's a pity that…,表示“真不凑巧,真遗憾”
    例  As it happened,they were out.
    15. As it turned out,…
    在口语中,相当于it was found to be in the end,表示“最后被证明是”
    例  As it turned out,his statement was false.
    16. Such as it is(they are)
    在口语中,相当于although it may not be worth much,表示“虽然没有多大价值”
    例  You can borrow my exam notebook,such as it is.
    17. Take it/things easy.
    相当于Don't worry or don't hurry. 用来劝告别人,表示“不要慌,别担心,存住气”
    例  Take it easy! He will do it well.
    18. Take it from me.
    在口语中,相当于believe me what I say.表示“请相信我的话,我敢担保”
    例  You can take it from me that he will make it this time.
    19. For what it is worth…
    在口语中,相当于although I'm not sure it's of value,表示“不管其价值如何”
    例  Here is the article I promise you,for what it's worth.
    20. Worth it
    在口语中,相当于useful,表示“有好处,值得做”
    例  Don't hesitate about it! It's worth it.
    21. Believe it or not.表示“信不信由你”
    例  Believe it or not,Tom is getting married to Mary next Sunday.
    22. Take it or leave it. v. 要么接受要么放弃
    例  That is my last offer. You can take it or leave it.
    23. It all depends/that all depends
    在口语中,相当于it hasn't been decided yet,表示“那得看情况,还没有定下来”
    例  —Are you going to the countryside for holiday?
    —It/That all depends.
    24. It's up to sb.
    在口语中,相当于it's decided by sb. 表示“由……决定,由……负责,取决于……”
    例  —Shall we go out for dinner?
    —It's up to you.
  • it用法小结:
    It用作实词
    表达以下概念:
    指代前文提到的事物,前文中的this, that;
    替代前文中的内容;
    指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人;
    指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事;
    指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象。

    一、it 作人称代词的用法
    1. 指事物
    作为人称代词,it 可以除人以外的一切事物或动物。如:
    I dropped my watch and it broke. 我把手表掉在地上摔坏了。
    It’s hard work, but I enjoy it. 工作很辛苦,可是我乐意干。
    “Where is the dog?” “It’s in the bedroom. ” “狗在哪?”“在卧室里”。
    2. 指人
    it 指人主要用于指不性别不明的婴儿或用于确认某人的身份。如:
    Is it a boy or a girl? 是男孩还是女孩?
    There is a knock on the door. It must be the postman. 有人在敲门,一定是邮递员。
    【说明】在答语中,常用来指本人,如说 It’s me。
    3. 代替某些代词
    代词 it 还可用于代替指示代词this, that 以及复合不定代词 something, anything, nothing等。如:
    “What’s this?” “It’s a new machine. ” “这是什么?”“是一种新机器”。
    Nothing is wrong, is it? 没出什么问题,是吗?

    二、it 作非人称代词的用法
    1. 基本用法
    it 作非人称代词的用法,主要用于指时间、距离、价值、天气、气候及温度等自然现象。如:
    It’s too late to go there now. 现在去那儿已经太迟了。
    It rained all day yesterday. 昨天下了一天的雨。
    It can get very hot here. 这里有时会很热。
    2. 用于某些句型
    It’s time for sth. 该做某事了。
    It’s time to do sth. 该做某事的时候了。
    It’s time for sb to do sth. 某人该干某事了。
    It’s (about / high) time + that-从句. 某人该做某事了。(从句谓语用过去式,有时也用“should+动词原形”)
    It’s first (second) time + that-从句. 某人第几次干某事。(从句谓语用现在完成时)
    It’s + 时间段 + since-从句. 自从……有一段时间了。
    It’s + 时间段 + before-从句. 过多长的时间才……

    三、it用作形式主语
    1. 基本用法
    当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作句子主语时,为保持句子平衡,通常把真正的主语放在句末,而在句首使用形式主语it。如:
    It’s very important to remember this. 记住这一点很重要。
    It’s hard work climbing mountains. 爬山是费劲的事。
    It’s unknown when he will come. 他什么时候来还不知道。
    2. 用作形式主语的的重要句型
    (1) It + be + adj. for (of) sb to do sth 某人做某事……
    It is hard for him to make up his mind. 他很难下定决心。
    It was foolish of her to say such a thing. 她说那样的话,真是太蠢了。
    【说明】介词 of 与 for 的区别是:
    of 用于指某人的性格、属性、特征等,介词for表示对象,意为“对……来说” 。
    (2) It takes sb + 时间段 + to do sth. 某人做某事花了……时间
    It takes years to master a new language. 要花多年的时间才能掌握一门新的语言。
    【说明】此句型可以有以下多变种变体:It took me an hour to write the letter.
    =The letter took me an hour (to write). =I took an hour to write the letter. 我写这封信花了一个小时
    (3) It is up to sb to do sth. 该由某人做某事
    It’s up to you to to make the choice. 得由你来作选择。
    (4) it look (seem, appear, happen, occur) that [as if]… 似乎……
    It seemed as though he didn’t recognize me. 他似乎没认出我来。
    It happened that I was out when he called. 他打电话时我碰巧不在家。
    (5) If it were not for… / If it hadn’t been for… 若不是因为……
    If it were not for their help, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. 要不是他们帮助,这些困难我们不克服不了的。

    四、it用作形式宾语
    1. 基本用法
    当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作宾语且其后跟有宾语补足语时,通常会在宾语补足语前使用形式宾语,而将真正的宾语移至句末。
    其基本结构为“动词+it+宾语补足语+不定式(动名词或从句)”。如:
    I find it difficult to do the job well. 我发现做好这件事不容易。
    I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好住这儿。
    We think it no use complaining. 我们认为抱怨是没有用的。
    2. 用作形式宾语的几个特殊结构
    (1) 动词+ it + that-从句。如:
    I like it that you came. 你来了,我很高兴。
    I take it (that) he will come on time. 我认为他会准时来的。
    You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。
    Rumor has it that the defence minister will soon resign. 据传闻,国防部长不久就要辞职。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 have, take, put, like 等。
    (2) 动词 + it + when (if)-从句。如:
    I dislike it when you whistle. 我不爱听你吹口哨。
    We really appreciate it when she offered to help. 她来帮忙了,我们十分感激。
    I’d prefer it if I didn’t have to do so much work. 要是我不必做那么多工作,好就太好了。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, appreciate, prefer 等。
    (3) 动词 + prep + it + that-从句。如:
    See to it that you’re not late again. 注意千万不要再迟到。
    Look to it that this doesn’t happen again. 注意不要再发生这种事。
    You may rely on it that he’ll come to meet you. 你放心,他会来接你的。
    I can’t answer for it that he will come. 我不能保证他会来。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有see to, look to, insist on, stick to, depend on, answer for 等。
    (4) 动词 + it + 介词短语+ that-从句。如:
    I owe it to you that I am still alive. 多亏有你我才仍然活着。
    I took it for granted that he would help us. 我认为他会帮助我们的。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有take it for granted, bring it to sb’s attention, owe it to sb 等。

    it在强调句中的使用
    It is+被强调部分+that(who)+其他
    在使用强调句型时需注意以下几点:
    1. 请注意强调句型的特殊疑问句 
    2. 在强调原因状语从句时,只能强调由because所引导的从句。
    3. 在强调not … until结构时必须把not与until一起放到被强调的位置上。
    4. 注意强调句型与定语从句的区别。
    5. 不管被强调部分是单数还是复数,其前一律用It is / It was,而不能用They are / There were之类的。
    6. 被强调部分是指人时,被强调部分后可用that / who,被强调部分指物时,被强调部分后只能用that。
    7. 被强调部分是指时间或地点时,被强调部分后通常用that,一般不用when,where之类的。例:
    It is I who am right. 是我对。
    It was you that were wrong. 是你错了。
    It was in the Japan that he died. 他是死于日本。
    It was yesterday that he got married. 他是昨天结婚的。
    It was a computer that he bought last week. 他上个星期买的是一台电脑。
    Where was it that she lived? 她是住在什么地方?
    When was it that he left for Japan? 他是什么时候离开去日本的?
    Who is it that teaches you English? 是谁教你们英语?

考点名称:固定搭配
  • 固定搭配:
    英语中的固定搭配主要是指英语中的习惯用法,如有固定用法的一些动词短语、介词短语、名词词组及形容词词组。
    例如:
    take part in (参加) 
    by accident (偶然地) 
    lucky dog (幸运儿)
    be interested in (对…感兴趣)
  • 初中英语常见固定搭配:
    (一)加-ing
    enjoy / like doing sth 喜欢做----    
    spend....(in) doing sth 在做---花费---  
    try doing 试着做------                
    be busy doing sth 忙于做------
    finish doing sth 完成做----           
    look forward to + doing sth 期待做----(现在进行时)
    be doing 正在做---     
    Thank you for (doing) sth 为了--感谢你

    (二)加-to
    decide to do sth 决定去做-----             
    ask (sb)to do 要求(某人)去做----      
    It’s+adj +to do sth . 做---(怎么样)        
    would like / want to do 想要做-----    
    It takes sb sometime to do sth在做----花费----

    (三)加原形
    let / make sb do sth 让某人做某事   
    be going to / will do sth (一般将来时态)

    (四)加-to 或-ing意思不同
    forget doing 忘记做过了-----(已做)    
    forget to do 忘记去做------(还没做)   
    remember doing记得做过了-----(已做)
    remember to do记得去做------(还没做)

    (五)加-to 或-ing意思相同
    begin / start to do sth = begin / start doing sth开始做------

    (六)
    A)动词+ 介词
    agree with同意....的意见(想法);符合    
    help ... with ...帮助(某人)做(某事)  listen to听...              
    ..get to到达....       
    fall off (从......)掉下base on以....(为)根据     
    knock at /on敲(门、窗)        
    laugh at嘲笑
    learn.. from 向...学习     
    live on继续存在;靠...生活 
    look after照顾,照看look at看;观看           
    look for寻找             
    look like看起来像
    pay for (sth.)付钱;支付 
    point at指示;指向          
    point to指向....prefer to ...宁愿(选择);更喜欢           
    quarrel with (和某人)吵架
    regard...as ...把....当作....;当作                 
    stop...from阻止.....做.....
    talk about说话;谈话;谈论                        
    talk with与......交谈think about考虑                                  
    think of认为;想起
    B)动词+ 副词                                                     
    ask for请求;询问       
    carry on坚持下去;继续下去     
    cut down砍倒 
    clean up清除;收拾干净  
    come down下来;落    
    come along来;随同
    come in进来            
    come on来吧;跟着来;赶快 
    come over过来;顺便来访           
    come out出来;出现;(花)开;发(芽)      
    drop off放下(某物);下车                              
    eat up吃光;吃完
    fall behind落在......后面;输给别人            
    fall down跌倒;从......落下
    find out查出(真相)                                
    get back回来;取回
    get down下来;落下;把......取下来             
    get off下来;从......下来get on上(车)               
    get up起床                
    give up放弃go on继续               
    go out出去     
    go over过一遍;仔细检查
    grow up长大;成长      
    hand in交上来                
    hurry up赶快
    hold on (口语)等一等;(打电话时)不挂断             
    look out留神;注意
    look over (仔细)检查                            
    look up向上看;抬头看  
    pass on传递;转移到....                          
    pick up拾起;捡起
    put away放好;把....收起来  
    put on穿上;戴上;(戏剧等)上演;放(唱片等
    put down把(某物)放下来                             
    put up挂起;举起
    run away流失;逃跑;逃走 
    rush out冲出去 
    set off出发;动身;
    启程send up发射;把......往上送  
    shut down把......关上      
    sit down坐下
    slow down减缓;减速      
    take off脱掉(衣服)          
    take out取出
    throw about乱丢;抛撒                          
    trip over (被......)绊倒
    try on试穿(衣服、鞋等);试戴(帽子等)                
    try out试验;尝试
    turn down关小;调低        
    turn on打开(电灯、收音机、煤气、自来水等
    turn off关(电灯、收音机、煤气、自来水等)           
    turn over (使)翻过来
    wake up醒来                               
    wear out把......穿旧;磨坏
    work out算出;制订出                               
    write down写下....
    C) be + 形容词+ 介词                                              
    be angry with对(某人)发脾气              
     be interested in对......感兴趣 
    be able to能;会                                   
     be afraid of害怕
    be amazed at对......感到惊讶            
    be excited about对......感到兴奋
    be filled with用......充满                            
    be full of充满......的
    be good at =do well in在....方面做得好;善于             
    be late for迟到
    be made in在......生产或制造            
    be made of由....组成;由....
    be pleased with对......感到满意              
    be proud of以......自豪/高兴
    be used for用于
    D)动词+ 名词/ 代词                                               
    beg one′s pardon请原谅;对不起         
    do morning exercises做早操
    do one′s homework做作业                                           
    enjoy oneself =have a good time过得快乐;玩得愉快                   
    give a concert开音乐会     
    go boating去划船      
    go fishing去钓鱼go hiking去徒步旅行     
    go skating去滑冰     
    go shopping (去)买东西
    have a cold (患)感冒    
    have a cough (患)咳嗽  
    have a headache (患)头痛  
    have a try尝试;努力    
    have a look看一看         
    have a rest休息 
    have a seat (= take a seat ) 就坐;坐下        
    have sports进行体育活动  
    have supper吃晚餐   
    hear of听说   
    hold a sports meeting举行运动会
    make a decision作出决定  
    make a mistake犯错误  
    make a noise吵闹
    make faces做鬼脸      
    make friends交朋友       
    make money赚钱
    take one′s place坐某人的座位;代替某人的职务                       
    teach oneself (=learn by oneself ) 自学                  
    watch TV看电视 
    take photos照相       
    take time花费(时间)         
    take turns轮流
    E)动词+ 名词/ 代词/ 副词+ 介词                                  
    catch up with赶上           
    come up with找到;提出(答案、解决办法等)
    get on well with与......相处融洽                   
    give birth to生(孩子) 
    help yourself / yourselves to自取;随便吃   
    make room for给.....腾出地方
    play a joke on戏弄人;对人恶作剧              
    speak highly of称赞   
    say good bye to告别;告辞               
    take an active part in积极参加
    take care of照顾;照料;注意
    F)其他类型                                                        
    be awake醒着的          
    be born出生         
    be busy doing忙着做
    come true实现     
    do one′s best尽最大努力     
    fall asleep睡觉;入睡  
    go home回家    
    go on doing (sth.)继续做某事;尽力   
    get married结婚
    get together相聚                  
    go straight along  沿着...一直往前走
    had better (do)最好(做...)                    
    keep doing sth.一直做某事        
    make sure确保;确认;查明               
    make up one′s mind下决心

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