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  4. 可数名词(单数名词,复数名词)反身代词关系代词副词分词

词形转换。1. E-mail English is like writing r .2. Jim learns English all by (he).3. We did two (experimen

一、题文

词形转换。
1. E-mail English is like writing r         .
2. Jim learns English all by         (he).
3. We did two         (experiment) in chemistry class.
4. Are you parents          (pleasant) with your study?
5. I          (normal) travel by public transport.
6. Do you know          (who) bike it might be?

考点提示:可数名词(单数名词,复数名词),反身代词,关系代词,副词,分词

二、答案

1. riddles   2. himself  3. experiments  4. pleased  5. normally  6. whose

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《词形转换。1. E-mail English is like writing r .2. Jim learns English all by (he).3. We did two (experimen》这道题主要考你对 可数名词(单数名词,复数名词)反身代词关系代词副词分词 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:可数名词(单数名词,复数名词),反身代词,关系代词,副词,分词

考点名称:可数名词(单数名词,复数名词)
  • 可数名词:
    是指能以数目来计算,可以分成个体的人或东西;
    因此它有复数形式,当它的复数形式在句子中作主语时,句子的谓语也应用复数形式。
  • 名词单数变复数的规则:
    情况构成方法例词读音
    一般情况在词尾加-sdesk→desks
    map→maps
    -s在清辅音后发/s/
    day→days
    girl→girls
    -s在元音和浊辅音后发/z/
    以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词在词尾加-esbus→buses box→boxes watch→watches fish→fishes-es发/iz/音
    以辅音字母加-y结尾的词变y为i再加-esfamily→families
    factory→factories
    party→patries
    -ies发/iz/音
    以元音字母加-y结尾的词在词尾加-sday→days
    boy→boys
    key→keys
    -s发/z/音
    以f或fe结尾的词变f或fe为v再加-esknife→knives
    life→lives
    wife→wives
    half→halves
    -ves发/vz/音
    以辅音字母加-o结尾的词在词尾加-espotato→potatoes
    tomato→tomatoes
    hero→heroes
    -es发/z/音
    以元音字母加-o结尾的词在词尾加-sradio→radios
    zoo→zoos
    -s发/z/音
    巧记以f\\fe结尾的可数名词复数
    妻子骑牛拿起刀,wife,calf,knife ↑
    追得贼狼满街跑,thief,wolf →→→变f或fe为v,再加es
    碰倒架子丧己命,shelf,self,life ↓
    手帕树叶半空飘。handkerchief,leaf,half ↓
  • 名词复数的不规则变化:
    1.不规则形式:
    child→children(儿童)
    man→men(男人)
    woman→women (女人)
    an Englishman→two Englishmen(英国人)
    foot→feet(脚)
    tooth→teeth(牙)
    mouse→mice(老鼠)
    ox →oxen(公牛)
    goose→geese(鹅)

    2.单复同形:
    deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese, species,means,Swiss
    除人民币,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。
    如:a dollar,two dollars; a meter,twometers

    3.集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数:
    people police cattle是复数
    (OK :a person,a policeman,ahead of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss )
    (Error:a people,a police,a cattle )
    表示国民总称时,作复数用。
    (The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。)

    4.以s结尾,仍为单数的名词
    maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。
    news是不可数名词。

    5.表示由两部分构成的东西,
    glasses(眼镜) trousers (长裤) clothes(衣服)
    若表达具体数目,要借助数量词pair(对,双)a pair of glasses  two pairs of trousers suit(套)

    6.另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思
    goods (货物) waters (水域) fishes (各种鱼)
  • 可数名词变复数的几种形式: 
    1) 单数名词加s: students, apples, bags, trees, books, brothers.   
    2) 以s、x、sh、ch结尾的名词加es: glasses, boxes, brushes, matches.  
    3) 以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加es: cities, babies, enemies.   
    4) 以f或fe结尾的名词,多数变f为v加es: wives, knives.但有些词只加s: roofs,proofs, chiefs.  
    5) 以o结尾的名词,有些加es: Negroes, heroes, tomatoes, potatoes.  其它加s: radio s, zoos, pianos, photos.   
    6) 不规则名词:foot→feet, goose→geese, tooth→teeth, child→children, man→men, woman→women, mouse→mice.
    7) 单复数同形的名词:sheep,fish,dee.
    注意:fish表示种类时,也用fishes这样的形式。
考点名称:反身代词
  • 反身代词:
    是一种表示反身或强调的代词。它的基本含义是:通过反身代词指代主语,使施动者把动作在形式上反射到施动者自己。
    因此,反身代词与它所指代的名词或代词形成互指关系,在人称、性质、数上保持一致。
    它由第一人称、第二人称的形容词性物主代词和第三人称代词宾格,加上self或selves构成。

  • 变为反身代词构成:
    1、第一、二人称的反身代词是由形容词性物主代词加上-self或-selves构成的。如:
    I--myself we--ourselves you(单数)
    -- yourself you(复数)-- yourselves
    2、第三人称的反身代词是由人称代词的宾格加上-self或-selves构成的。如:
    she--herself 
    he --himself
    it--itself 
    they--themselves 
    one--oneself
    例句:
    In his twenties, Charles began to write and soon became famous.查尔斯二十多岁的时候开始写作,很快就出名了
    It is myself that solved all the problems.是我自己解决了所有的问题。
    I want to dress myself warmly.我要穿暖和一点。

    变化歌诀:
    反身代词代自己,懂得规律很好记
    单数人称加self,复数人称selves
    一二人称都一样,所有格后加自己
    第三人称不一样,要用宾格加自己

  • 反身代词使用注意事项:
    ①反身代词不能做主语,但可作主语同位语,放在主语后或句末。如:
    我自己去了电影院。
    错:Myself went to the cinema .
    对:I went to the cinema myself.
    ②反身代词可以作宾语的同位语
    You can go and ask John himself.翻译:你可以去问约翰本人。
    ③反身代词可以作介词的宾语。
    by oneself 全靠自己;
    say to oneself 自言自语。
    She learnt swimming all by herself.
    她是自学游泳的。
    She said to herself,"Who am I?"
    她自言自语的说:“我是谁?”
    ④反身代词作动词的宾语
    enjoy oneself 玩得高兴;
    help oneself (to) 随便用……;
    hurt oneself 伤害自己;
    teach oneself 自学;
    get dressed oneself 自己穿衣
    seat oneself 就坐
  • 反身代词用法口诀:
    反身代词表自身,句中可作三成分
    动介后面用作宾,表示动作回自身
    句中强调同位语,主语宾语后变跟
    系动be后作表语,这个用法要牢记

    反身代词有的用法:
    1、作宾语,此时的宾语指的就是主语。
    A.非强调用法
    这种用法通常表示反身代词与句中的主语是同一人。
    它在句中作宾语,不能省略,否则该句是一个意义不完整的错句。例如:
    (1)Jane is too young to look after herself.(简年纪太小,以至于不能照看自己)
    (2)I teach myself English.(我自学英语)
    (3)He didn't hurt himself, thank goodness.(他未伤了他自己,谢天谢地。)

    B.强调用法
    反身代词在强调用法中表示强调,即用来加强某个名词或者代词的语气,可译成“亲自”、“本人”。
    此时,它在句中作同位语。即使去掉,也不影响句子的完整性。例如:
    (1)You must do it yourself.(你必须自己做)
    (2)I myself did the homework last night。(昨晚是我自己做了家庭作业)

    C.与by搭配
    当反身代词与by搭配时,意为:单独地,没有人帮助的。例如:
    (1)We must finish it all by ourselves.(我们必须全靠自己去完成。)
    (2)He can swim all by himself.(他能独自一个人游泳。)

    D.宾语转换为主语一定要记牢有些形容词需有反身代词
    Please help yourself to some fish. 请你随便吃点鱼。
    We enjoyed ourselves last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。

    E.用于及物动词+宾语+介词
    take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth.
    I could not dress (myself) up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。

    F.注意:有些动词后不跟反身代词,get up,sit down ,wake up等。
    注:反身代词和人称代词作宾语时具有不同的含义。如:
    He saw himself in the mirror.他在镜子里看见了他自己。(himself 和 he 为同一人)
    He saw him in the mirror.他在镜子里看见了他。(him 显然指另外一人)

    2、作表语,此时的表语指的就是主语。可用在be,feel,seem,look等系动词之后,通常描述身体、精神等方面的感觉或状态。例如:
    After a few days of rest,he was more himself again.
    休息几天之后,他的身体好多了。
    She does't look herself today.
    她今天看上去神色不正常。
    I am not myself today.
    我今天不舒服。

    3、作同位语,用来加强语气或表示强调,可译为“亲自”,“本人”。如果省去反身代词,句子含义也不会有实质性的改变。
    这样用时,反身代词在句中的位置比较灵活,如果是做主语的同位语,可以紧跟在该名词或代词的后面,也可置于句末。
    The thing itself is not important. 翻译:事情本身并不重要。

    4、在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。如:
    No one but myself (me) is hurt.

    5、作主语
    反身代词本身不能单独作主语。
    (错)Myself drove the car.
    (对)I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。
    但在and, or, nor连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是myself 作主语。
    例如:Charles and myself saw it.
    反身代词不能做主语,但可以放在主语后或句末。
    例如:I did it by myself.

  •  

     单数

    复数 

     第一人称

    myself 

     ourselves

     第二人称

     yourself

     yourselves

     第三人称

     himself
    herself
    itself

    themselves 

考点名称:关系代词
  • 关系代词:
    用来引导定语从句。它代表先行词,同时在从句中作一定的句子成分。
    关系代词有主格,宾格和属格之分,并有指人与指物之分,它在先行词和定语之间起纽带作用。
    主要的关系代词有who,whom,whose,which和that。
    ①who指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语;
    whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语;
    whose在定语 从句中作定语,其先行词既可以是人也可以是物。
    例如:The teacher who/whom you want to see has come.
    ②which指物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 
    例如:Here is the coat which will be made to you.
    ③that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。
    例如:I have eaten bread that/which he gave to me.
  • 关系代词的基本用法:
    (1)引导定语从句
    关系代词代表先行词,同时在从句中作一定的句子成分,例如:
    The girl whom I spoke to is my cousin. 跟我讲话的姑娘是我表妹。
    (该句中whom既代表先行词the girl,又在从句中作介词to的宾语。)
    This is the pencil whose point is broken.这就是那个折了尖的铅笔。
    (whose 指物,在限定性定语从句中作定语)
    He came back for the book which he had forgotten.他重新回来都忘记了他的那本书。
    (which指物,在限定性定语从句中作宾语,可以省略)
    (2)which为其先行词。例如:
    He said he saw me there, which was a lie.他说在那儿看到了我,纯属谎言。
    (3)其他用法
    关系代词that在从句中作宾语或表语时可省略, 例如:
    I've forgotten much of the Latin I once knew.我过去懂拉丁语,现在大都忘了。
    He's changed. He's not the man he was.他变化很大,已不是过去的他了。
    注释:关系代词在从句中作宾语时可省略,that在从句中作表语时也可省略。
    非限定性定语从句中,不能用that作关系代词。

  • 关系代词的语法注意:
    1.常用that 不用which的情况:
    ①先行词为all, anything, everything, nothing, something等时。
    I will do all (that) I can to help you.
    ②先行词被序数词、形容词最高级或the only, the very等所修饰时。
    He was the only person that joined the army in his village that year.
    ③先行词既有人,又有物时
    They talked about the people and the things (that)they remembered in the school.
    ④当主句是以who 或which开头的疑问句时, 定语从句用that 引导, 以避免重复。
    Who is the boy that was here just now?
    2. 若被修饰的名词充当从句介词宾语时
    介词可提前于引导词之前,此时的引导词只能用whom 或which.
    The pencil with which he was writing broke.
    3. 当先行词为way时
    其后的定语从句用in which或 that引导,也可不用引导词。
    I don’t like the way (in which/that) he talks to me.

    used to/be used to的分别:
    ①used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。
    Mother used not to be so forgetful.
    ②be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。
    Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)
    ③used to 的用法 (否定式简写为usedn't) 过去经常,以前常常
    This used to be a shabby house. (此房年久失修)
    used to,would这两个词语都可以表示过去常做某事,有时可以换用。
    used to do 强调过去习惯性的行为或状态,但是现在没有这种行为或状态了。因此,这个短语的内涵是今昔对比。

  • 关系代词的用法:
    一、不用that的情况
    在引导非限定性定语从句时 (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.
    介词后不能用We depend on the land from which we get our food.

    二、只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
    a.在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。
    b.在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。
    c.先行词有the only, the very.(恰恰,正好).any. few. little. no. all 修饰时,只用that。
    d.先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。
    e.先行词既有人,又有物时。
    Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

    三、不能用关系代词Which 的几种情况
    1.当先行词为all, little, much, few, everything, none 等不定代词时关系代词用that而不用which.
    There are few books that you can read in this book store.
    2.当先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用that, 不用which.
    He asked about the factories and workers that he had visited.
    3.当先行词有形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词用that, 而不用which.
    Guilin is one of the most beautiful cities that I have ever visited.
    4.当先行词有序数词修饰时,关系代词用that, 不用which.
    The first sight that was caught at the Great Wall has made a lasting impression on him.
    5.当先行词被the only, the very, the same, the right等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which.
    It is the only book that he bought himself.
    6.当先行词被all, every, any, much, little, few, no等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which.
    There is no clothes that fit you here.
    7.当主句是以which开头的特殊问句时,定语从句关系代词一般用that而不用which.
    Which of the books that had pictures was worth reading?
    8.在强调句型" It is ... that ..." 中,只用that,不用which.
    It is in this room that he was born twenty years ago.
    9.在" such (the same) ... as ..." 句型中,关系代词要用as, 而不用which.
    We need such materials as (not which) can bear high temperature.
    10.表示" 正如... 那样 "," 正象..." 之意时,用as, 不用which.
    Mary was late again, as had been expected.
    11.As 引导的定语从句可以放在主句前面,也可以放在主句后面或主句中间,而由 which引导的定语从句只能放在主句后面。
    As we all know, oceans cover more than 70% of the earth.

    关系代词可以省略的情况:
    1.关系代词which,whom,who,that在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略。
    Here is the man (who/that/whom)you're been looking for.
    2.当that在从句中作补语时可以省略。
    She is all (that) a teacher should be.
    3.在there be 结构中出现定语从句,或在定语从句中出现there be 时,用作主语的关系代词也可省略。
    This is the best dictionary (that) there is in the library.
    4.状语的省略
    (1)当先行词是reason,而且定语从句中作原因状语时,关系代词可用why,that,也可以省略。
    That is the reason (why) I did it.
    (2)当先行词是way,且在定语从句中作方式状语时,关系代词可用in which,that,也可以省略。
    I don't know the way that/ which leads to the top of the mountains.
    (3)当先行词是time时,关系代词可用when,that 或省略。
    I don't know the exact time (when/that) the sports meet will take place.
    注意:关系代词作宾语有时也不能省略。

    关系代词不能省略情况:
    1.在介词+whom与介词+which中,whom,which不能省略。
    That is the headmaster with whom my father was talking just now.
    2.在非限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词也不能省略。
    The elephant is like a spear,as anybody can see.
    3.在the same ...as,such...as,as...as,the same...that中,as,that即使作宾语,也不能省略I have bought the same bicycle as you have (bought). (指同类用as)
    This is the same book that I read the day before yesterday. (that指同一个)
    4.当由and,but,or等连词连接两个或两个以上的定语从句修饰一个先行词时,第一个关系代词可省,但第二,第三个不可省略。
    This is the book (which) I read yesterday and which I find very interesting.

  • 关系代词格式:
    关系代词有主格,宾格和属格之分,并有指人与指物之分。that的用法最广,that可指人也可指物。
    见表:

     

    限定性
    指人

    非限定性
    指物

    限定性
    指人或指物

    主格

    who

    which

    that

    宾格

    whom

    that

    that

    属格

    whose

    of  which
    whose

    of  which
    whose

  • 特殊关系代词的用法:
    关系词通常是用来引导定语从句的,但as,than和but这三个词却与which, who, that, where, when和why等典型的关系词不同。
    三者本身具有常见的字面意义,前面有名词作先行词,但后面的定语从句却不像典型的定语从句。
    这些既像连接词又像关系词的词,我们就姑且称它们为准关系词。
    一、 as作为准关系代词出现在the same ... as, such ... as, 和as ... as等结构中。
    这时, as前面通常要有名词;
    as后面的从句意义上不像是通常的定语从句;
    as需要在从句中充当一定的句子成分。
    1. the same ... as
            1) as在从句中作主语
      She is the same person as came here last Sunday. 她就是上星期天来这儿的那个人。
      2) as在从句中作宾语
      This is the same watch as I lost while I was doing the sightseeing in Shanghai three months ago. 这块表跟我三个月前在上海观光时丢失的那块一样。
      3) as在从句中作be动词的表语
      China is not the same country as it used to be. 中国已今非昔比。
      4) as在从句中作行为方式状语
      You should learn to do housework in the same way as your mother does it. 你应该学会像你母亲那样做家务活。
    2. such ... as
      1) as在从句中作主语
      Let children read such books as tend to make them better and brighter. 让孩子看那些容易让他们变得更好更聪明的书。
      2) as在从句中作宾语
      This is not such an interesting book as you just talked about. 这不是你们刚才谈到的那种有趣的书。
      3) as在从句中作be动词的表语
      Such a bad man as he is will be punished. 像他这样的坏人一定会受到惩罚。
    3. as ... as
      1) 第二个as在从句中作主语
      He has as much money as is required. 他要多少钱就有多少钱。
      2) 第二个as在从句中作宾语
      I have as many friends as you (do). 我的朋友和你的朋友一样多。
      3) 第二个as在从句中作be动词的表语
      As is known to all, Taiwan is one of the Chinese provinces。众所周知,台湾是中国的一个省。

    二、than作为准关系词 出现在more ... than, less ... than, fewer ... than等结构中。这时, than前面要有名词; than本身有比较意义,而且需要在从句中充当一定的句子成分。
      1. than在从句中作主语
      Take it easy, I have more money than is needed. 放心,我的钱比所需要的还要多。
      2. than在从句中作宾语
      I have more/fewer books than you (do). 我的书比你的多/少。
      3. than在从句中作be动词的表语
      He is a better boy than you (are). 他是一个比你更好的男孩。
    三、but作为准关系词 本身含有否定意义,它前面的主句还有另一个否定意义。这时but在意义上相当于“who ... not ...”或“which/that ... not ...”。
      1.定语从句中有be动词,并将其改为含but的复合句时, be动词后面不能再有not
      There is no one who is not conccrned about his future. (= There is no one but is concerned about his future.) 没有人不关心自己的未来?
      2. 定语从句中有can, will, shall, must, may, should, ought to等助动词或情态动词,在将其改为含but的复合句时,这些助动词或情态动词后面不能再有not
      There is nothing that she can’t do. (= There is nothing but she can do.) 没有她做不到的事?
      3. 定语从句中有助动词do, does, did, 在将其改为含but的复合句时,应去掉do, does, did, 还原其后动词的时态及人称变化
      There is no one who doesn’t wish to make great achievements. (= There is no one but wishes to make great achievements.) 谁都希望自己将来能有所成就。
    四、which的先行词:关系代词which的先行词可以是一个句子
      He said he saw me there, which was a lie。他说在那儿看到了我,纯属谎言。
    说明:关系代词that在从句中作宾语或表语时可省略
      I've forgotten much of the Latin I once knew。 我过去懂拉丁语,现在大都忘了。  

考点名称:副词
  • 副词:
    是一种用来修饰动词、形容词、全句的词,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念的词。副词是一种半虚半实的词。
    副词可分为:地点副词、方式副词、程度副词、疑问副词和连接副词。
    副词连用顺序:程度副词+方式副词+地点副词+时间副词。
  • 副词分类:
    1、时间副词有三类:always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词
    1)表示发生时间的副词:
    It’s beginning to rain now!  现在开始下雨了!
    2)表示频繁程度的副词,也称频度副词always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词:
    She often changes her mind.  她常改变主意。
    3)还有一些其他表示时间的副词:
     He has just had an operation. 他刚动过手术。
    2、地点副词:
    1)有不少表示地点的副词:
    She is studying abroad.  她在国外留学。
    2)还有一些部分与介词同形的副词。它们与介词同形,跟宾语的是介词,否则是副词:
    ①用作介词:Stand up!  起立!
    ②用作副词:A cat climbed up the tree.  猫爬上了树。
    3)以where 构成的副词也是地点副词: 
    It’s the same everywhere.  到处都一样。
    3、方式副词:
    carefully, properly(适当地), anxiously(焦虑地), suddenly, normally(正常地), fast, well, calmly(冷静地), politely(有礼貌地), proudly(自豪地), softly, warmly ,slowly
    4、程度副词:
    much,little, very,rather(相当),so,too,still, quite, perfectly(完美地), enough, extremely(非常), entirely(整个),almost, slightly(细小地), hardly.
    5、疑问副词:
    how, when, where, why.
    6、关系副词:
    when, where, why.等。
    7、 连接副词:
    therefore(因此),moreover(此外),however,otherwise(另外的),then,when ,where,how,why等。

    副词的语法作用:
    副词在句中可作状语,表语,补语,定语。
    He works hard. (作状语)
    他工作努力。
    You speak English very well. (作状语)
    你英语讲的相当好。
    Is she in ? (作表语)
    她在家吗?
    Let's be out. (作表语)
    让我们出去吧。
    Food here is hardly to get. (here作定语,hardly作状语)
    这儿很难弄到食物。
    Let him out!(作补语)
    让他出去!
    修饰名词的副词放在被修饰词之后
    a. The villagers there are busy getting in wheat.

  • 不同类型副词的用法比较:
    方式副词:
    1)英语中有大量方式副词,说明行为方式(回答how的问题):
    How beautifully your wife dances.  你夫人舞跳的真美。
    2)还有相当多的副词,表示某些情绪:
    She smiled gratefully.  她感激的笑了笑。
    3)还有一些以-ly结尾的副词,表示动作发生的状况:
    He left the town secretly. 他悄然离开了这座城市。

    程度副词和强调副词 :
    1)程度副词可修饰动词,表示“到某种程度”:   Is she badly hurt?  她伤得重吗?
      [说明] 这类副词除修饰动词外,还可修饰形容词(a)或另一副词(b):
    a. fairly simple 相当简单      quite correct 完全正确
    b. wonderfully well 好极了    do it very quickly 干得很快
    2)much 是一个特殊的程度副词,它可以:
    a. 修饰形容词等:
    I’m not much good at singing. 我唱歌不太好。
     b. 修饰比较级:
    You sing much better than me. 你比我唱的好多了。
    Their house is much nicer than ours. 他们的房子比我们的好多了。

    疑问副词和连接副词:
    1)疑问副词:疑问副词用来引导特殊问句:
    how: How is your grandmother? 你奶奶身体好吗?
    where: Where does she come from? 她是哪儿人?
    when: When can you come? 你什么时候能来?
    why: Why was he so late? 他为什么来得这么晚?
    2)连接副词:连接副词意思和词形都和疑问副词一样,但都引导从句或与不定式连用:
    how: Do you know how to start this machine? 你知道这台机器怎样启动吗?
    where: I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住在哪儿。(引导宾语从句)
    when: Tell me when you’ll be ready. 告诉我你什么时候准备好。(引导宾语从句)
    why: That’s why I came round. 这就是我来的原因。(引导表语从句)

    一些其它类型的副词,如表示方向的副词:
    Let’s go inside. 咱们到里面去。
    Take two steps forward. 向前走两步。

  • 副词的位置:
    1、实义动词前,be动词、情态动词之后。
    I am also Bush.
    I can also do that.
    I also want to play that games.
    I get up early in the morning everyday. 我每天早早起床。
    He gave me a gift yesterday. 他昨天给了我一件礼物。
    She didn't drink water enough. 她喝的水不够。
    The train goes fast. 火车跑得快。
    We can go to this school freely. 我们可以免费到这家学校学习。
    They left a life hardly then. 当时他们的生活很艰难。
    He has a new hat on today. 他今天戴了一顶新帽子。
    I have seen this film twice with my friends. 这部电影我和朋友看过两次。

    2、副词修饰形容词,副词时,副词在前面,而被修饰的词在后面。
    It's rather easy, I can do it. 这很容易,我能做到。
    He did it quite well. 他做得相当好。
    It's rather difficult to tell who is right.很难说谁是对的。
    It's so important that I must tell my friends. 这件事太重要了,我得告诉我的朋友。
    It's much better. 好多了。

    3、频度副词可放在实义动词的前面,情态动词和助动词的后面。
    I often help him these days. 这些日子我经常帮助他。
    I always remember the day when I first came to this school.
    我常常记得我第一次来学校的那一天。
    You mustn't always help me. 你不能老是帮助我。
    He seldom comes to see us. 他很少来看我们。
    We usually go shopping once a week. 我们通常一周买一次东西。
    The new students don't always go to dance. 新学生并不时常去跳舞。

    4、疑问副词,连接副词,关系副词以及修饰整个句子的副词,通常放在句子或从句的前面。
    When do you study everyday? 你每天什么时间学习?
    Can you tell me how you did it? 你能告诉我你如何做的吗?
    First, let me ask you some questions. 先让我来问几个问题。
    How much does this bike cost? 这辆车子多少钱?
    Either you go or he comes. 不是你去就是他来。
    The students were reading when the teacher came into the classroom. 当老师进教室时,学生们正在读书。

    5、时间副词和地点副词在一个句中, 地点副词在前面时间副词在后面。
    We went shopping in the supermarket at 9 o'clock yesterday.
    昨天九点钟我们到超市买东西了.
    What were you doing in the classroom yesterday afternoon?
    昨天下午你在教室里干什么?
    The accident took place in the Eleven Avenue one hour ago.
    一小时前十一号大街发生了一场事故。

    6、否定副词在句首,句子要倒装,如:
    Never have I felt so excited!
  • 兼有两种形式的副词:
    1) close与closely
    close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"
    He is sitting close to me.
    Watch him closely.

    2) late 与lately
    late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"
    You have come too late.
    What have you been doing lately?

    3) deep与deeply
    deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"
    He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
    Even father was deeply moved by the film.

    4) high与highly
    high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
    The plane was flying high.
    I think highly of your opinion.

    5) wide与widely
    wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"
    He opened the door wide.
    English is widely used in the world.

    6) free与freely
    free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"
    You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
    You may speak freely; say what you like.
    副词有加a或ly的 区别在于通常加a 的副词描述一种状态,而加ly 的副词则倾向于感觉。
考点名称:分词
  • 分词:
    就是具有动词及形容词二者特征的词;尤指以-ing或-ed,-d,-t,-en或-n结尾的英语动词性形容词,具有形容词功能,同时又表现各种动词性特点,
    如时态,语态、带状语性修饰语的性能及带宾语的性能。
    分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式。
    现在分词和过去分词主要差别在于:
    现在分词表示"主动和进行",过去分词表示"被动和完成"(不及物动词的过去分词不表示被动,只表示完成)。
    分词可以有自己的状语、宾语或逻辑主语等。
  • 现在分词构成形式:
    ①一般在动词原形末尾加ing,如do→doing、sing→singing、comfort→comforting
    ②以不发音的e、ue结尾的动词,先去e,再加ing,如dance→dancing、hike→hiking、write→writing、make→ making,take→taking
    ③以ee、oe、ye结尾的动词加ing,如see→seeing、toe→toeing、dye→dyeing
    ④以重读闭音节结尾的动词,并且末尾只有一个辅音字母,应双写这一字母,再加ing,如cut→cutting、swim→swimming
    注:结尾是x则不必双写,如relax→relaxing
    ⑤以ie结尾的动词,要把ie变成y再加ing,如die→dying,lie→lying.
    ⑥以ic结尾的动词,要把ic变成ick再加ing,如picnic→picnicking,traffic→trafficking

    过去分词构成形式:
    1.规则动词:规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则相同。四点变化规则:
    (1)、一般动词,在词尾直接加“ ed ”。(然而要注意的是,过去分词并不是过去式)
    work---worked---worked ,  visit---visited---visited
    (2)、以不发音的“ e ” 结尾的动词,只在词尾加“ d ”。
    live---lived---lived
    (3)、以“辅音字母 + y ”结尾的动词,将 "y" 变为 "i" ,再加“ ed ”。
    study---studied---studied,cry---cried---cried,try---tried---tried,fry---fried---fried.[1]
    (4)、重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写该辅音字母,再加“ ed ”。
    stop---stopped---stopped  ,  drop---dropped--dropped
    (5)、以ic结尾的动词,要把ic变成ick再加ed,
    picnic→picnicked  ,traffic→trafficked
    2 、不规则动词:见不规则动词表

  • 分词用法:
    1、分词作状语   
    分词在句子中作状语,可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、伴随等。   
    分词(短语)作状语时,其逻辑主语应与句中主语相一致。
    当现在分词表示的动作发 生在谓语动词之前时, 则用现在分词的完成式,且所表示动作与谓语动作同时发生, 则用现在分词的一般式。
    完成或被动关系用过去分词。   
    ①现在分词:
    The students went out of the classroom, laughing and talking.   
    ②过去分词:
    Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway station. 
    Given   better attention, the plants could grow better.   

    2、“while ( when, once, until, if , though等连词)+分词”结构   
    现在分词或过去分词作状语时,有时可以在分词前加while,when, once, although, until, if等连词。   
    ①现在分词:
    When leaving the airport, she waved again and again to us.
    While waiting for  the train, I had a long talk with my sister about her work……   
    ②过去分词:
    Once recovered, he threw himself into his work and made every effort to do it  well.   
    Although working very hard, he failed to pass the final exam. If translated word by word, the passage will be difficult to understand.   

    3、分词作定语   
    分词作定语时,单个的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前,分词短语一般置于所修饰的中心词后面。
    现在分词修饰的是发出该动作的名词(即与名词有主谓关系),过去分词修饰承受该动作的名词(即与名词是动宾关系)。    
    We will go on with our experiment as soon as we get the added fund.    
    This is really an exhausting day to all of us!   
    We can see the part of the moon lighted by sunlight.   
    After a night spent in excitement and sleeplessness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the next day.   
    More and more developing countries established strategic partnership with  developed countries   

    4、分词作宾语补足语   
    现在分词在see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel, find, glimpse, glance等感官动词和look at, listen to等短语动词以及
    have, keep, get, catch, leave, set, start, send等使役动词后面与名词或代词构成复合宾语,作宾语补语的成分。
    例:I see him passing my house every day.
    I caught him stealing things in that shop.
    I smelt something burning.

    5、分词作表语
    分词作表语通常看作形容词来用。
    过去分词表示主语的感受或状态,主语多为人。现在分词表示主语的性质,而且主语多为物;
    ①过去分词:
    We were so bored that we couldn’t help yawning.
    She felt confused, and even frightened.
    ②现在分词:
    He was very amusing.
    That book was rather boring.
    很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语:
    exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling.

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