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  4. 动词不定式疑问代词否定句一般疑问句

Rewrite the sentences. 按要求完成句子.1. I like to play basketball.(对划线部分提问) do you like ____ ?2. Kim likes

一、题文

Rewrite the sentences. 按要求完成句子.
1. I like to play basketball. (对划线部分提问)
            do you like ____        ?
2. Kim likes to play ping-pong. (改为否定句)
    Kim               to play ping-pong.
3. like to fly a kite. (改为一般疑问句)
                  like to fly a kite?

考点提示:动词不定式,疑问代词,否定句,一般疑问句

二、答案

1. What; to do    2. doesn't like    3. Do you

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《Rewrite the sentences. 按要求完成句子.1. I like to play basketball.(对划线部分提问) do you like ____ ?2. Kim likes》这道题主要考你对 动词不定式疑问代词否定句一般疑问句 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:动词不定式,疑问代词,否定句,一般疑问句

考点名称:动词不定式
  • 不定式定义:
    由to+动词原形构成。不定式是一种非限定性动词。而非限定动词是指那些在句中不能单独充当谓语的动词,可分为不定式,动名词,现在分词和过去分词。
    “动词不定式”由动词+不定式构成。动词不定式在句中可以作句子除谓语之外的任何句子成分。动词不定式的被动形式除了一般形式外还有其完成式和进行式。
    常见的有:like / love,want,need,ask,help等。
    例:I like to play with Tom. 我喜欢和汤姆玩。 
            I want to play with Tom. 我想和汤姆玩。 
            I like to eat dumplings. 我喜欢吃饺子。
  • 动词不定式一般结构:
    疑问词who,what,which,when,where,whether,how后可接不定式构成不定式短语,在句中作主语、宾语、表 语等。如:
    ①When to leave for London has not been decided yet. (不定式在句子中做主语)
    ②Mr. Smith didn't know whether to leave or stay there. (不定式在句子中做宾语)
    ③I asked Professor Xu how to learn English well. (不定式在句子中做直接宾语)
    ④The question was where to get the medicine needed. (不定式在句子中表语)
    以上例句中疑问词+不定式部分,均可转换为相应的从句形式。如:
    ①When we shall leave…
    ③…how I could learn…
    经常在这种结构中使用的动词有:
    consider,decide,discover,explain,find out,forget,hear,know,lea rn,observe,understand,wonder等。
  • 动名词与不定式的区别:
    1 动名词与不定式的区别:
    动名词表达的是:状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的 
    不定式表达的是:目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的

    2 接不定式或动名词,意义相同。

    3在下列情况下,一般要用不定式:
    ①hate,like,love前有would(should)时,
    如:I'd like to have a cup of coffee.
    ②当谓语动词begin,continue,start等是进行式时,
    如:Thestudents are starting to work on the di fficult maths problem.
    ③begin,continue,start与know,understand等状态动词连用时,
    如:I soon began to understand what was happening.
    ④.advise,allow,encourage,forbid,permit等动词后接动名词作宾语,或带不定式作宾语补足语。如:
    Our teachers don't permit our/us swimming in the lake.
    Our teachers don't permit us to swim in the lake.

    4 部分动词后接不定式或动名词时,意义差别较大,应根据句子语境选择使用。
    forget,remember,regret后接不定式,表示现在或未来的动作,接动名词表示动作已经发生。如:
    Don't forget to post the letter for me.
    Have you forgotten meeting her in Beijing Airport?
    Remember to close the windows before you leave.
    I remember writing him a letter a year ago.
    We regret to tell you that all of you are not invited toattend the meeting.
    They regretted ordering these books from abroad.
  • 省to的动词不定式:
    (1)情态动词( 除ought 外,ought to意思是“应该”,是情态动词,只有一种形式,后边接动词不定式,to不能省略。
    ought to没有人称和数的变化,后接动词原形可以表示现在、将来或过去将来,由时间状语或上下文决定。例如:
    They ought to come tomorrow.他们明天应当来):
    (2)使役动词 let,have,make:
    (3)感官动词see,watch,look at,notice,observe,hear,listen to,smell,feel,find 等后作宾补,省略to。
    注意:在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。
    在使役动词中get除外(get sb. to do sth.)
    I saw him dance.
    =He was seen to dance.
    The boss made them work the whole night.
    =They were made to work the whole night.
    (4)表示个人意愿或倾向的would rather,had better,might(just) as well:rather than置于句首时。
    Rather than ride on a crowded bus,he always prefers to ride a bike.
    (5)Why… / why not…:
    (6)help 可带to,也可不带to,help sb (to) do sth:
    (7)but和except:but前是动词do时,后面出现的动词用不带to的动词不定式。
    (8)由and,or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去:
    (9)通常在discover,imagine,suppose,think,understand等词后,可以省去to be:
    He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。
    (10)but作介词,后接不定式结构时,前面谓语动词部分若含有do的形式时,but后的不定式要省去to,否则要带to。
    He wants to do nothing but go out.
    He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.
    (11)当两个或多个不定时短语由连词and,but或or连接时,后一个或几个不定式符号to常省略。但若表示对比、对照关系时,则不能省略。
    He wants to move to France and marry the girl.
    The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier,not to make it more difficult.
    (12)不定式做表语时,一般要带to,但若主语部分中含有do的各种形式时,符号to可省去。
    We've missed the last bus.All we could do now is walk home.
考点名称:疑问代词
  • 疑问代词:
    在句子中用来构成特殊疑问句,主要用于询问“何人”、“何事”、“什么”。
    常见的疑问代词如下表所示:

    疑问代词

    替代范围

    who

    whom

    whose

    which

    人、事、物

    what

    事、物

考点名称:否定句
  • 否定句:
    表示否定的句子。必须有否定词。
    否定句的构成形式:
    a. 谓语为be动词时,“be+not "一名学生。
    b. 谓语为实义动词而且没有情态动词和助动词时,“do/ does/ did+not"构成否定。 
    例:I do not like dancing. 我不喜欢跳舞。 
          He does not want to go to school. 他不想去上学。
    c. 谓语为“情态动词+实义动词”时,“情态动词+not”构成否定。 
    例:You must not smoke. 你千万不要吸烟。 
           I can not catch it. 我抓不住它。
  • 否定句在英语语法中可以分为九类:
    (1)一般否定句
    I don't know this. No news is good news.
    There is no person(smoking)/not a person/not any person(smoking)in the house.
    (2)特指否定
    He went to his office, not to see him.
    I am sorry for not coming on time.
    I don't think/believe/suppose/feel/imagine you are right.
    (3)部分否定
    All the answers are not right
    All is not gold that glitters
    I don't know all of them.
    I can't see everybody/everything.
    Both of them are not right.
    (4)全体否定
    None of my friends smoke.
    I can see nothing/nobody.
    Neither of them is right.
    Nothing can be so simple as this.
    (5)延续否定
    You didn't see him, neither/nor did I.
    You don't know, I don't know either.
    He doesn't know English, let alone/to say nothing of/not to speak of(更不用说)French.
    (6)半否定句
    We seldom/hardly/scarcely/barely hear such fine singing.
    I know little English. I saw few people.
    (7)双重否定
    You can't make something out of nothing.
    What's done cannot be undone.
    There is no sweet without sweat.
    No gain without pains.
    I can't help /keep/ laughing whenever I hear it.
    No man is so old but(that)he can learn.
    (8)排除否定
    Everyone is ready except you.
    He did nothing but play.
    But for your help, I couldn't do it.
    (9)加强否定
    I won't do it at all.
    I can't see it any more.
    He is no longer a boy.
  • 否定转移的形式与用法:
    一、动词的否定转移
    1.形式上否定主句的谓语,实际上是否定从句的谓语
    当动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”的主语是第一人称,谓语动词为没有任何副词修饰的一般现在时,它们的否定式实际上是对宾语从句的否定。
    表示说话者提出一种委婉的看法或主张。如:
    I think that he will help us.——I don’t think that he will help us. 我认为它不会帮助我们。
    I believe that he is right.——I don’t believe that he is right. 我认为他不对。
    I suppose that he likes it.——I don’t suppose that he likes it. 我想他不喜欢它。

    2. 形式上否定谓语动词,实际上否定复合宾语
    当动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”、“find”的主语是第一人称,谓语动词为没有任何副词修饰的一般现在时,它们前面的否定式实际上是对复合宾语的否定。表示说话者所提出的一种委婉的看法或主张。如:
    I think math difficult. — I don’t think math difficult. 我认为数学不难。
    I find the story interesting. — I don’t find the story interesting. 我认为这个故事没有趣。
    I expect so. —I don’t expect so. 我认为不会。

    二、动词“think”、“believe”、“suppose”、“imagine”、“expect”、“feel”在下列情况下,否定不转移:
    1.这些动词跟其他另一个动词一起做并列谓语时,否定不转移。如:
    I believe and hope he won’t do that. 我相信并且也希望他将不会那样做。
    I feel and admit that we are not foolish. 我觉得并且也承认我们并不愚蠢。

    2.用于疑问句时,否定不转移。如:
    Do you think it is not going to rain? 你认为天不会下雨吗?
    Don’t you believe that he has done a good thing? 难道你不相信他做了一件好事?

    3.用作插入语时,否定不转移。如:
    Li Lei, I think, won’t be angry with you. 我想李蕾不会生你的气。
    Tom, I suppose, won’t be against it. 我猜想汤姆不会反对。
    Mike, I believe, hasn’t seen the film. 我认为迈克没有看这场电影。

    4.动词前有其他副词修饰时,否定不转移。如:
    I really don’t think it’s necessary for us to go there now. 我的确不认为我们有必要去那儿。
    I feel strongly that he shouldn’t do such a thing. 我强烈地认为他不应该做那样的事。

    5.动词为非一般现在时或主语不是第一人称时,否定不转移。
    I thought that he wouldn’t come back soon. 我原以为他不会回来得这么快。
    She didn’t believe that he became a good boy. 她不相信它变成了一个好孩子。
    He thinks that he isn’t fit for the job. 他认为他不适合这件工作。
    He doesn’t believe that what we told him is true. 他不相信我们告诉他的事是真的。

    6.当宾语从句中含的否定为“not……at all”、“not a little”、“not a few”、“not enough”、“can’t help”等固定搭配时,否定不转移。如:
    I think that he doesn’t know it at all. 我想他对那一点也不知道。
    I suppose that it is not enough to remember the words if you want to learn the language well. 我认为如果你想把这门语言学好,那么只记单词是不够的。
    I believe that you can’t help singing our national anthem when you win the first place in the Olympic Games. 我相信当你在奥运会上获得第一名时你会情不自禁地唱起国歌来。

    7.当宾语从句中含“no”、“nothing”、“nobody”、“nowhere”、“hardly”、“seldom”、“little”、“few”等否定词或半否词时,否定不转移。如:
    I believe that nothing can make me give it up. 我想任何事情也不能使我放弃。
    I think that no one can escape if the ship sinks in the sea. 我认为如果这艘船沉入海底的话,那么谁也逃不掉。
    I suppose that he is a man of few words. 我猜想他是一个言语不多的人。

考点名称:一般疑问句
  • 一般疑问句:
    是疑问句的一种。它是以be动词,have或助动词、情态动词开头,用yes(是)或no(否)来回答的句子。
    其结构是:系动词be/助动词/情态动词+主语+其他成分
    一般疑问句的肯定形式为:
    助动词+主语(+实义动词)。肯定答语用“yes+可定结构”。 
    一般疑问句的否定形式为:
    助动词构成的缩写否定词+主语(+实义动词)。否定答语用“no+否定结构”。
    例:
    — Do you like this story-book? 你喜欢这本故事书吗? 
    — Yes, I do. 喜欢。/ No, I don’t. 不喜欢。 
    — Is he a student? 他是一名学生吗?
    — Yes, he is. 是,他是。/ No, he isn’t. 不,他不是。
  • 一般疑问句的改写:
    一、含有be动词的一般疑问句,通常把be动词调到句首。例如:
    陈述句:They are in the swimming pool.
    一般疑问句:Are they in the swimming pool?
    注意:一般疑问句句末要用“?”。

    二、含有情态动词的一般疑问句(can, may...),把情态动词调到句首。例如:
    陈述句:He can drive a car.
    一般疑问句: Can he drive a car?

    三、含有have的一般疑问句,have译为“有”。一般疑问句式有两种形式:
    1.把have/has调到句首。例如:
    陈述句:Tommy has a computer.
    一般疑问句:Has Tommy/he a computer?
    2.加助动词do/does,第三人称单数用does,其他人称用do。其句型为:Do/Does + 主语 + have...?
    例如上句可变为: Does Tommy have a computer?

    四、一般动词的一般疑问句,也要借助助动词do/does,第三人称单数用does,其余人称用do。
    其句型为:Do/Does + 主语 + 动词原形+其它?
    陈述句:Amy speaks English.
    一般疑问句:Does Amy speak English?

    一般疑问句的回答:
    首先要有人称的改变。当主语为名词时,在答语中要改成其相应的代词。
    另外,答语有两种,肯定的回答(用yes)和否定的回答(用no),否定式常用缩写形式。
    现在还是让我们分句型一一说明。

    一、一般疑问句含be动词时,用be动词回答,句末用句号。例如:
    -Is Mary your sister?
    -Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.(缩写)

    二、一般疑问句含有情态动词(can, may, should等)时,用情态动词回答。例如:
    -May I come in?
    -Yes, you may. / No, you can’t.

    三、一般疑问句含有have(译为“有”)时,有两种回答方式。
    1.直接用have/has回答。
    例如:
    -Have they any pictures?
    -Yes, they have. / No, they haven’t.
    2.用助动词do/does回答。
    例如:
    -Does Millie smoke?
    -Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.

    四、一般动词的一般疑问句回答时也用助动词。
    例如:
    -Do the workers live in London?
    -Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.

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