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单词拼写。根据下列句子所给汉语提示,在句子中横线上写出空缺处各单词的正确形式。 1. I have to go ______ (城镇商业区) later. 2. There are a lot of

一、题文

单词拼写。
根据下列句子所给汉语提示,在句子中横线上写出空缺处各单词的正确形式。
1. I have to go ______ (城镇商业区) later.
2. There are a lot of excellent ______(滑雪者)in the north of China.
3.We received a number of ______ (投诉)from customers about the lack of parking facilities.
4.The children were happy to see many colorful ______ (气球)go up into the blue sky..
5. You should exercise more so as to keep _____(精力充沛).
6. If something a ______ a liquid or other substance, it takes the substance into itself
   from the surface or space around it. 
7. Please pass me the d ______ control; I would like to change for CCTV-1.
8. The letter wasn't addressed to me but I opened it out of c ______.
9.The English Channel s ______ England from France.
10. They had the good news s ______ throughout the country.

考点提示:单词、词组,可数名词及其单复数,主谓一致

二、答案

1. downtown  2. skiers 3. complaints 4. balloons 5. energetic
6. absorbs 7. distant 8. curiosity 9. separates 10. spread

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《单词拼写。根据下列句子所给汉语提示,在句子中横线上写出空缺处各单词的正确形式。 1. I have to go ______ (城镇商业区) later. 2. There are a lot of》这道题主要考你对 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:单词、词组,可数名词及其单复数,主谓一致

考点名称:单词、词组
  • 单词和短语

    由两个以上的词组成的,没有完整的句子结构,但又有一定的语法和逻辑关系的词的组合就是短语或词组。短语又包括固定短语,和自由短语。
    比如说,put off (推迟),look up(查阅,查字典)have a heavy heart(心情沉重)…我们都习惯称为短语或词组(phrase)。put off是由一个动词和介词组成的,但他在句子中充当一个动词的作用,也就是说在这个词组中,put 是词头(head of the phrase) 所以它是动词词组,或动词短语。

  • 题型特点:

    对于英语学习来说,词汇是基础,掌握并灵活运用英语单词对学好英语至关重要,它会直接影响到我们的听、说、读、写能力。从高考单词拼写试题来看,单词拼写把单词放在句中考查,不仅是单词拼写,而且还要考查单词的形式,即将单词的写与用结合起来。这一点主要是要求学生对词汇的应用要有所掌握,体现了学以致用,从而根据语境选用适当的词。因此,答题时必须认真阅读全句,弄懂句意,在理解的基础上考虑选用适当的词汇。所考词汇多为多音节词,多数单词均有不同的变化形式,一般不少于4个字母。

    题型种类:

    1、句子中被考查的单词突出,画横线,横线标有该单词的首字母,要求学生写出该单词的正确形式。
    2、句子中被考查的单词突出,画横线,横线后的括号内注有汉语,要求学生写出该单词的正确形式。

     

  • 例题解析:

    (一)读懂句意,确定单词。
    例如:The f____day of the week is Sunday. 该句意为“一周的第一天是星期天”,需要填的词的首字母是“f”,根据常识和序数词有关知识应填“第一”,故填 first。此类题还可考月份。
    例如::September is the n ____ month of the year (答案:ninth)

    (二)瞻前顾后,确定形式写出单词后,还要注意分析该单词是否需要变化形式。现分类说明如下:
    1、名词一般考虑单、复数和所有格。
    例1:Do you like white?We have shirts of different c____. 根据句意,可确定单词为“color”,通过前面的shirts和different两词可确定此处应用colors。
    例2:September10 this T____Day. 根据句意,确定单词“Teacher”,它与Day之间存在所有格关系,将Teacher变为复数,再变为所有格,应填Teachers'。
    2、形容调和副词这两类词学生极易混淆,做题时应仔细分析,慎重选择究竟用哪类词,有时还要考虑到形容词和副词“级”的变化。
    例1:He was very a____with the man upstairs and began to shout, "Stop singing!" 根据句意,此处应填形容词原级angry。
    例2:On Sundays, Children play h____in the park. 此处应填副词happily,副词修饰动词。
    3、动词动词变化形式较为复杂,一般有五种:动词原形、第三人称单数形式、现在分词,过去式和过去分词。可综合考查学生运用英语知识的能力。
    例1:Thank you very much for l____me your bike. 介词后动词用-ing形式,故填lending。
    例2:When he was ten, he became i____in maths. become interested in 为固定词组,意为“对……感兴趣”,故此处应填interested。
    4、数词注意确定用基数词还是序数词。
    例1:There are t____months in a year. 此处应用基数词twelve。
    例2:December is the t____month of the year. 此处应填序数词twelfth。
    5、代词主要从人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词和疑问代词几方面考虑,有时还要考虑用单数还是用复数。
    例1:Help y____to some fish, Jim. 根据句意,此处应用yourself.
    例2:"Help y____to some fish, please." Mrs Green said to the twins. 根据句意,thetwins为复数,故填yourselves。
    6、连词若前后两个词或句子存在转折、因果、并列、选择等关系,一般应填连词。
    例1:She didn't go to school yesterday b____she was il1. 从句和主句互为因果关系,故填because。
    例2:The football match still went on t____it was raining heavily. 该从句为让步状语从句,故应填though。

  • 解题技巧:

    以下是解单词拼写的基本程序:首先要仔细审题,明确大意。在句子缺词的情况下,尽量弄懂句子大意并根据已给出的语境,判断出所缺的单词,试将该单词放入句子当中,看是否能使句子完整,句意明确。注意词性,写出词形。在解题过程中,要特别注意根据句子中所缺成分,判断所缺单词的词类。
    1、名词,就要注意单复数;
    2、动词,就要注意主谓一致、时态和语态的一致性;
    3、形容词和副词,就要注意形容词和副词之间的转化规则;
    4、词组和短语,就要注意固定搭配。
    重读句子,验证答案。完成拼写后,要把句子重读一遍,检查句子是否通顺,单词拼写是否准确无误,单词形式是否正确,如名词的数、格,动词的时态、语态、语气和非谓语形式,形容词、副词的级等。这一步很重要,因为差之毫厘,谬以千里。总而言之,高考单词拼写题既考查学生的词汇量,又考查学生在特定的语境中灵活运用词汇的综合应变能力。要想提高得分率,绝非一日之功。正如谚语所说:“Rome was not built in one day”。所以,考生应该以命题特点为指导,在平时的复习中运用构词法知识多读、多记、多练,并增强语感,辅以行之有效的解题方法,才能熟练掌握,灵活运用,避免出错。

  • 题型拓展:

    1、单纯的翻译题,考查考生对单词的记忆。
    例句:The little girl is wearing a____ (粉红色的)dress. (正确答案:pink)
    2、根据语境要求,填入所写单词的适当形式。
    例句:The story was first written in English and later____ (翻译) into Chinese.(正确答案:translated)
    3、从词在拼写上有可能存在的“盲点”(相对难写、难记)考虑命题。
    例句:The book gives a short ____(描述) of the city.(正确答案:description)
    4、在有可能出现多个近似答案的情况下,对词的用法进行甄别。
    例句:Very few people ____(成功) in losing weight these days.(正确答案:succeed)
    5、从词在用法上有可能存在的“盲点”(相对少见的用法,在一般规律中考查特殊)考虑命题。
    例句:All the boys were standing up ____(笔直). (正确答案:straight)
    6、侧重选择多音节词汇(构成各单词的字母数一般都超过了7个)命题,考查考生对多音节词汇的把握程度。
    例句:One of ____ (邻居) kept a very beautiful garden. (正确答案:neighbours或neighbors)
    7、侧重选择词义较为生僻或使用率偏低的词汇命题,考查考生对单词拼写记忆的广泛程度。
    例句:He turned on the television set hanging from the____ (天花板). (正确答案:ceiling)
    8、侧重从词音与词形不相吻合的部分命题(包括不发音字母),考查考生对单词拼写记忆的准确程度。
    例句:I usually just have a____ (三明治) for lunch. (正确答案:sandwich)
    9、能根据语境的要求,将所给的中文提示(该提示给人以名词或动词的假象)转译成正确的英语表现形式。
    例句:I changed into my sports shoes so that I could walk more____(舒服). (正确答案:comfortably)
    10、对近义词不同搭配用法的一般常识,在有可能出现多个答案的情况下,对词的用法进行反复推敲,考生应对最常用词汇的易混易错现象给予注意。
    例句:A fence at the back of garden (分开) us from the neighbours.(正确答案:separates或separated)
考点名称:可数名词及其单复数
  • 可数名词:

    是指能以数目来计算,可以分成个体的人或东西;因此它有复数形式,当它的复数形式在句子中作主语时,句子的谓语也应用复数形式。 
                             

  • 可数名词复数的规则变化: 

    情况构成方法 读音例词
    一般情况加 –s 1.清辅音后读/s/;
    2.浊辅音和元音后读/z/; 
    map-maps
    bag-bags
    car-cars
    以s,sh,ch,x等结尾的词加 -es读 /iz/bus-buses
    watch-watches
    以ce,se,ze,(d)ge等结尾
    的词 
    加 -s读 /iz/ license-licenses
    以辅音字母+y结尾的词  变y 为i再加es 读 /z/baby-babies
    另外:
    1)以y 结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数: 
    如:two Marys the Henrys      monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays  
    比较:层楼:storey---storeys  story---stories
    2)以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:
    a. 加s,如: photo---photos  piano---pianos 
    b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes
    c. 均可,如:zero---zeros / zeroes 
    3)以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:
    a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs   safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;
    b. 去f, fe 加ves,如:half---halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves  wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves;
    c. 均可,如:handkerchief:  handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

    可数名词复数的不规则变化:

    1)child---children foot---feet  tooth---teeth   mouse---mice  man---men woman---women  
    注意:与 man 和 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。 
    如:an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。
    2)单复同形 如:
    deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese
    li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin 
    但除人民币元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:
       a dollar, two dollars;  a meter, two meters
    3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。
    如:staff  people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说a staff  a people,a police,a cattle,
    但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the
    Japanese, the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。 
    如:The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。
    4)以s 结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:
    a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。
    b. news 是不可数名词。
    c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。
    The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。
    d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。
     "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book.
     <<一千零一夜>>是一本非常有趣的故事书。
    5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes ;
    若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers
    6)另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼

    复合名词的复数形式:
       名词作定语名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
    1)用复数作定语。
    如:sports meeting 运动会 
    students reading-room 学生阅览室  
    talks table 谈判桌    
    the foreign languages department 外语系
    2)man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。
    如:men workers  
    women teachers 
    gentlemen officials
    3)有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。
    如:goods train (货车) 
    arms produce 武器生产
    customs papers 海关文件
    clothes brush衣刷
    4)数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。
    如:two-dozen eggs 两打/(二十四个鸡蛋) 
    a ten-mile walk 十里路 
    two-hundred trees 两百棵树           
    a five-year plan 一个五年计划   
  • 可数名词单复数知识体系:

     

  • 不同国籍人的单复数:

    国籍总称(谓语用复数)单数复数
    中国人the Chinesea Chinese two Chinese
    瑞士人the Swissa Swisstwo Swiss
    澳大利亚人the Australians an Australiantwo Australians
    俄国人the Russiansa Russiantwo Russians
    意大利人the Italiansan Italiantwo Italians
    希腊人the Greeka Greektwo Greeks
    法国人the Frencha Frenchmantwo Frenchmen
    日本人the Japanesea Japanesetwo Japanese
    美国人the Americansan Americantwo Americans
    印度人the Indiansan Indiantwo Indians
    加拿大人the Canadiansa Canadiantwo Canadians
    德国人the Germansa Germantwo Germans
    英国人the Englishan Englishmantwo Englishmen
    瑞典人the Swedisha Swedetwo Swedes

考点名称:主谓一致
  • 主谓一致的概念:

    谓语的数必须和主语的人称和数保持一致,这就叫主谓一致。

  • 主谓一致的基本原则:

    1)语法一致原则,即在语法形式上取得一致。例如,主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语动词也采取复数形式。
    例如:The students are very young.
                This picture looks beautiful.
    2)意义一致原则,即从意义着眼处理一致关系。例如,主语形式虽是单数但意义是复数,谓语动词也采取复数形式;
    而有些主语形式虽是复数但意义上看作单数,谓语动词也采取单数形式。
    例如:The people in that country are fighting for independence.
                The crowd deeply respect their leader. 
                Three years in a strange land seems a long time.
    3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单数或复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。
    例如:Neither hen or I am going to see the film tonight because we are busy.

  • 几对容易混淆词组的一致用法:

    1、由“this/thatkind/typeof+名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式;而由"these/thosekind/typeof+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。
    例如:This kind of apples is highly priced.
                Those kind(s) of tests are good.
    2、由“a number of,a totalo f,an average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式;由“the number of,the total of,the average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。
    例如:A number of students are waiting for the bus.
                The number of the students in this university is increasing yearly.
    3、one of,the(only) one of的一致用法
    例如:This is one of the books that have been recommended.
                This is the(only) one of the books that has been recommended.

  •  主谓一致用法点拨:

    1、并列结构作主语谓语用复数:
    如:Reading and writing are very important.
    注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。
    如:The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.
    典型例题:
    The League secretary and monitor___asked to make a speech at the meeting.
    A. is
    B. was
    C. are
    D. were
    答案:B.
    注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A、C本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

    2、主谓一致中的靠近原则:
    1)当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
    例如:There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.
                There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.
    2)当either…or…与neither…nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。
    如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。
    例如:Either you or she is to go. 
                Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

    3、谓语动词与前面的主语一致:
    当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。
    例如:The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 
                He as well as I wants to go boating.

    4、谓语需用单数:

    1)代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each,every,谓语需用单数。
    例如:Each of us has a tape-recorder. 
    2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。
    例如:The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 
    3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)
    例如:Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
                Ten yuan is enough.

    5、指代意义决定谓语的单复数:
    1)在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。
    例如:All is right. (一切顺利。)
                All are present. (所有人都到齐了。)
    2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。
    例如:family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。
    例如:His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭。
                His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。
    但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。
    例如:Are there any police around?
    3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。
    A number of+名词复数+复数动词。 The number of+名词复数+单数动词。
    例如:A number of books have lent out.
                The majority of the students like English.

    6、与后接名词或代词保持一致:

    1)用half of, part of, most of, a portion of等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。
    例如:Most of his money is spent on books.
                Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.
    2)在一些短语,如many a或more than one所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。
    但由more than…of作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。
    例如:Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。
                More than 60percent of the students are from the city. 百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市

  • 主谓一致知识体系:

     

  • 主谓一致用法拓展:

    1)当everyone,everybody,noone,nobody,anyone,anybody,someone,somebody,everything,anything,something,nothing等用作主语时,其相应的代词一般用单数形式。
    例如:If anybody calls, tell him that I'm out.
                Something strange happened, didn't it? 
    2)人称代词与名词的呼应:人称代词I(me),he(him),she(her),it(it) 都是代替前面的单数名词,而they(them),we(us)则是代替复数名词的,you既可以代表单数,也可以代表复数。但表示泛指的时候,用he或one来表示。
    例如:If a young person enters a classical music field only for money, he is in the wrong profession. 
    3)物主代词与名词的呼应:my,our,his,her,its,their要与代替的名词在数上一致。
    例如:The welfare department,as well as the other social services,will have its budget cut.
    4)反身代词与其所代成分间的呼应。
    例如:Many primitive people believed that by eating ananimal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.
    5)指示代词与所代名词间的呼应:this和that指代单数名词或不可数名词,these和those指代复数名词(those还可以用作先行词,引导定语从句,表示“那些人”)。
    例如:She invited all those who had been her former colleagues.
    6)much和muchof后接不可数名词,而many和manyof后接可数名词的复数。
    例如:There is not much coal left.
                A great many of the houses were knocked down by the earthquake.
    7)表示量的词后面有的接可数名词,有的接不可数名词。
    接可数名词的有:a number of,a rangeof,a series of十复数名词;
    接不可数名词的有:a great deal of,an amount of十不可数名词;
    既可接可数又可接不可数名词的有:a lot of,a variety of。
    例如:1.The government attached a great deal of importance to education.
                2.Quiteanumberofwomenappliedforthisjob.
                3.The college library has avariety of books.
                4.An apple is avariety off ruit.
         

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