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单词拼写。1. I can't c_______ with him, my telephone doesn't work. 2. He can't eat much be

一、题文

单词拼写。
1. I can't c_______ with him, my telephone doesn't work.
2. He can't eat much because he s_______ from stomachache.
3. I'm in a difficult s________ and I don't know what to do.
4. My roommate happens to have moved away so you can s_______ the room with me.
5. He sent a s_______ of stamps as my birthday gift.
6. You needn't have been so angry with her, for she broke the glass accidentally, not on p________.
7. Young girls and boys are c_______ about rock music.
8. If you want to read quickly and well, you should increase your ________(词汇量).
9. A dead body was found under the bridge, but it was hard to determine the _______(身份).
10. Our _______(政府) is coming to care more about the poor and weak.

考点提示:单词、词组,主谓一致

二、答案

1.communicate 2.suffers 3.situation 4.share 5.series
6.purpose 7.crazy 8.vocabulary 9.identity 10.government

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《单词拼写。1. I can't c_______ with him, my telephone doesn't work. 2. He can't eat much be》这道题主要考你对 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:单词、词组,主谓一致

考点名称:单词、词组
  • 单词和短语

    由两个以上的词组成的,没有完整的句子结构,但又有一定的语法和逻辑关系的词的组合就是短语或词组。短语又包括固定短语,和自由短语。
    比如说,put off (推迟),look up(查阅,查字典)have a heavy heart(心情沉重)…我们都习惯称为短语或词组(phrase)。put off是由一个动词和介词组成的,但他在句子中充当一个动词的作用,也就是说在这个词组中,put 是词头(head of the phrase) 所以它是动词词组,或动词短语。

  • 题型特点:

    对于英语学习来说,词汇是基础,掌握并灵活运用英语单词对学好英语至关重要,它会直接影响到我们的听、说、读、写能力。从高考单词拼写试题来看,单词拼写把单词放在句中考查,不仅是单词拼写,而且还要考查单词的形式,即将单词的写与用结合起来。这一点主要是要求学生对词汇的应用要有所掌握,体现了学以致用,从而根据语境选用适当的词。因此,答题时必须认真阅读全句,弄懂句意,在理解的基础上考虑选用适当的词汇。所考词汇多为多音节词,多数单词均有不同的变化形式,一般不少于4个字母。

    题型种类:

    1、句子中被考查的单词突出,画横线,横线标有该单词的首字母,要求学生写出该单词的正确形式。
    2、句子中被考查的单词突出,画横线,横线后的括号内注有汉语,要求学生写出该单词的正确形式。

     

  • 例题解析:

    (一)读懂句意,确定单词。
    例如:The f____day of the week is Sunday. 该句意为“一周的第一天是星期天”,需要填的词的首字母是“f”,根据常识和序数词有关知识应填“第一”,故填 first。此类题还可考月份。
    例如::September is the n ____ month of the year (答案:ninth)

    (二)瞻前顾后,确定形式写出单词后,还要注意分析该单词是否需要变化形式。现分类说明如下:
    1、名词一般考虑单、复数和所有格。
    例1:Do you like white?We have shirts of different c____. 根据句意,可确定单词为“color”,通过前面的shirts和different两词可确定此处应用colors。
    例2:September10 this T____Day. 根据句意,确定单词“Teacher”,它与Day之间存在所有格关系,将Teacher变为复数,再变为所有格,应填Teachers'。
    2、形容调和副词这两类词学生极易混淆,做题时应仔细分析,慎重选择究竟用哪类词,有时还要考虑到形容词和副词“级”的变化。
    例1:He was very a____with the man upstairs and began to shout, "Stop singing!" 根据句意,此处应填形容词原级angry。
    例2:On Sundays, Children play h____in the park. 此处应填副词happily,副词修饰动词。
    3、动词动词变化形式较为复杂,一般有五种:动词原形、第三人称单数形式、现在分词,过去式和过去分词。可综合考查学生运用英语知识的能力。
    例1:Thank you very much for l____me your bike. 介词后动词用-ing形式,故填lending。
    例2:When he was ten, he became i____in maths. become interested in 为固定词组,意为“对……感兴趣”,故此处应填interested。
    4、数词注意确定用基数词还是序数词。
    例1:There are t____months in a year. 此处应用基数词twelve。
    例2:December is the t____month of the year. 此处应填序数词twelfth。
    5、代词主要从人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词和疑问代词几方面考虑,有时还要考虑用单数还是用复数。
    例1:Help y____to some fish, Jim. 根据句意,此处应用yourself.
    例2:"Help y____to some fish, please." Mrs Green said to the twins. 根据句意,thetwins为复数,故填yourselves。
    6、连词若前后两个词或句子存在转折、因果、并列、选择等关系,一般应填连词。
    例1:She didn't go to school yesterday b____she was il1. 从句和主句互为因果关系,故填because。
    例2:The football match still went on t____it was raining heavily. 该从句为让步状语从句,故应填though。

  • 解题技巧:

    以下是解单词拼写的基本程序:首先要仔细审题,明确大意。在句子缺词的情况下,尽量弄懂句子大意并根据已给出的语境,判断出所缺的单词,试将该单词放入句子当中,看是否能使句子完整,句意明确。注意词性,写出词形。在解题过程中,要特别注意根据句子中所缺成分,判断所缺单词的词类。
    1、名词,就要注意单复数;
    2、动词,就要注意主谓一致、时态和语态的一致性;
    3、形容词和副词,就要注意形容词和副词之间的转化规则;
    4、词组和短语,就要注意固定搭配。
    重读句子,验证答案。完成拼写后,要把句子重读一遍,检查句子是否通顺,单词拼写是否准确无误,单词形式是否正确,如名词的数、格,动词的时态、语态、语气和非谓语形式,形容词、副词的级等。这一步很重要,因为差之毫厘,谬以千里。总而言之,高考单词拼写题既考查学生的词汇量,又考查学生在特定的语境中灵活运用词汇的综合应变能力。要想提高得分率,绝非一日之功。正如谚语所说:“Rome was not built in one day”。所以,考生应该以命题特点为指导,在平时的复习中运用构词法知识多读、多记、多练,并增强语感,辅以行之有效的解题方法,才能熟练掌握,灵活运用,避免出错。

  • 题型拓展:

    1、单纯的翻译题,考查考生对单词的记忆。
    例句:The little girl is wearing a____ (粉红色的)dress. (正确答案:pink)
    2、根据语境要求,填入所写单词的适当形式。
    例句:The story was first written in English and later____ (翻译) into Chinese.(正确答案:translated)
    3、从词在拼写上有可能存在的“盲点”(相对难写、难记)考虑命题。
    例句:The book gives a short ____(描述) of the city.(正确答案:description)
    4、在有可能出现多个近似答案的情况下,对词的用法进行甄别。
    例句:Very few people ____(成功) in losing weight these days.(正确答案:succeed)
    5、从词在用法上有可能存在的“盲点”(相对少见的用法,在一般规律中考查特殊)考虑命题。
    例句:All the boys were standing up ____(笔直). (正确答案:straight)
    6、侧重选择多音节词汇(构成各单词的字母数一般都超过了7个)命题,考查考生对多音节词汇的把握程度。
    例句:One of ____ (邻居) kept a very beautiful garden. (正确答案:neighbours或neighbors)
    7、侧重选择词义较为生僻或使用率偏低的词汇命题,考查考生对单词拼写记忆的广泛程度。
    例句:He turned on the television set hanging from the____ (天花板). (正确答案:ceiling)
    8、侧重从词音与词形不相吻合的部分命题(包括不发音字母),考查考生对单词拼写记忆的准确程度。
    例句:I usually just have a____ (三明治) for lunch. (正确答案:sandwich)
    9、能根据语境的要求,将所给的中文提示(该提示给人以名词或动词的假象)转译成正确的英语表现形式。
    例句:I changed into my sports shoes so that I could walk more____(舒服). (正确答案:comfortably)
    10、对近义词不同搭配用法的一般常识,在有可能出现多个答案的情况下,对词的用法进行反复推敲,考生应对最常用词汇的易混易错现象给予注意。
    例句:A fence at the back of garden (分开) us from the neighbours.(正确答案:separates或separated)
考点名称:主谓一致
  • 主谓一致的概念:

    谓语的数必须和主语的人称和数保持一致,这就叫主谓一致。

  • 主谓一致的基本原则:

    1)语法一致原则,即在语法形式上取得一致。例如,主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语动词也采取复数形式。
    例如:The students are very young.
                This picture looks beautiful.
    2)意义一致原则,即从意义着眼处理一致关系。例如,主语形式虽是单数但意义是复数,谓语动词也采取复数形式;
    而有些主语形式虽是复数但意义上看作单数,谓语动词也采取单数形式。
    例如:The people in that country are fighting for independence.
                The crowd deeply respect their leader. 
                Three years in a strange land seems a long time.
    3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单数或复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。
    例如:Neither hen or I am going to see the film tonight because we are busy.

  • 几对容易混淆词组的一致用法:

    1、由“this/thatkind/typeof+名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式;而由"these/thosekind/typeof+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。
    例如:This kind of apples is highly priced.
                Those kind(s) of tests are good.
    2、由“a number of,a totalo f,an average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式;由“the number of,the total of,the average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。
    例如:A number of students are waiting for the bus.
                The number of the students in this university is increasing yearly.
    3、one of,the(only) one of的一致用法
    例如:This is one of the books that have been recommended.
                This is the(only) one of the books that has been recommended.

  •  主谓一致用法点拨:

    1、并列结构作主语谓语用复数:
    如:Reading and writing are very important.
    注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。
    如:The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.
    典型例题:
    The League secretary and monitor___asked to make a speech at the meeting.
    A. is
    B. was
    C. are
    D. were
    答案:B.
    注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A、C本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

    2、主谓一致中的靠近原则:
    1)当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
    例如:There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.
                There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.
    2)当either…or…与neither…nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。
    如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。
    例如:Either you or she is to go. 
                Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

    3、谓语动词与前面的主语一致:
    当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。
    例如:The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 
                He as well as I wants to go boating.

    4、谓语需用单数:

    1)代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each,every,谓语需用单数。
    例如:Each of us has a tape-recorder. 
    2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。
    例如:The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 
    3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)
    例如:Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
                Ten yuan is enough.

    5、指代意义决定谓语的单复数:
    1)在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。
    例如:All is right. (一切顺利。)
                All are present. (所有人都到齐了。)
    2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。
    例如:family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。
    例如:His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭。
                His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。
    但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。
    例如:Are there any police around?
    3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。
    A number of+名词复数+复数动词。 The number of+名词复数+单数动词。
    例如:A number of books have lent out.
                The majority of the students like English.

    6、与后接名词或代词保持一致:

    1)用half of, part of, most of, a portion of等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。
    例如:Most of his money is spent on books.
                Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.
    2)在一些短语,如many a或more than one所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。
    但由more than…of作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。
    例如:Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。
                More than 60percent of the students are from the city. 百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市

  • 主谓一致知识体系:

     

  • 主谓一致用法拓展:

    1)当everyone,everybody,noone,nobody,anyone,anybody,someone,somebody,everything,anything,something,nothing等用作主语时,其相应的代词一般用单数形式。
    例如:If anybody calls, tell him that I'm out.
                Something strange happened, didn't it? 
    2)人称代词与名词的呼应:人称代词I(me),he(him),she(her),it(it) 都是代替前面的单数名词,而they(them),we(us)则是代替复数名词的,you既可以代表单数,也可以代表复数。但表示泛指的时候,用he或one来表示。
    例如:If a young person enters a classical music field only for money, he is in the wrong profession. 
    3)物主代词与名词的呼应:my,our,his,her,its,their要与代替的名词在数上一致。
    例如:The welfare department,as well as the other social services,will have its budget cut.
    4)反身代词与其所代成分间的呼应。
    例如:Many primitive people believed that by eating ananimal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.
    5)指示代词与所代名词间的呼应:this和that指代单数名词或不可数名词,these和those指代复数名词(those还可以用作先行词,引导定语从句,表示“那些人”)。
    例如:She invited all those who had been her former colleagues.
    6)much和muchof后接不可数名词,而many和manyof后接可数名词的复数。
    例如:There is not much coal left.
                A great many of the houses were knocked down by the earthquake.
    7)表示量的词后面有的接可数名词,有的接不可数名词。
    接可数名词的有:a number of,a rangeof,a series of十复数名词;
    接不可数名词的有:a great deal of,an amount of十不可数名词;
    既可接可数又可接不可数名词的有:a lot of,a variety of。
    例如:1.The government attached a great deal of importance to education.
                2.Quiteanumberofwomenappliedforthisjob.
                3.The college library has avariety of books.
                4.An apple is avariety off ruit.
         

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