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单词拼写。根据句子意思和汉语提示,写出空缺的形式正确的单词。 1. The third, the Vikings, _______(影响)the vocabulary and place-names

一、题文

单词拼写。
 根据句子意思和汉语提示,写出空缺的形式正确的单词。
1. The third, the Vikings, _______(影响)the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England, and the
    fourth, the Normans, left castles and introduced new words for food.
2. John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be _______(检查)
3. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an ________(爆发).
4. The problem ______(出现) because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop,
    move backward and then go forward in a loop.
5. His friends were ________(热情的) and encouraged him to publish his ideas.
6. Well,you have to listen for the detailed facts. _______(同时)you have to prepare the next question
    depending on what the person says.
7. The president of the university _______(批准) his appointment to the department two days ago.
8. The workers are ________(乐观) about the future of their factory.
9.You have three layers of skin which act as a _______(屏障) against disease.
10. People at a much later date who write about the same events are called secondary______(来源).

考点提示:单词、词组,从属连词,过去分词,一般过去时

二、答案

1.  influenced  2. examined  3. outbreak  4. arose 5.  enthusiastic
6. Meanwhile 7. approved 8. optimistic 9.  barrier 10.  sources

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《单词拼写。根据句子意思和汉语提示,写出空缺的形式正确的单词。 1. The third, the Vikings, _______(影响)the vocabulary and place-names》这道题主要考你对 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:单词、词组,从属连词,过去分词,一般过去时

考点名称:单词、词组
  • 单词和短语

    由两个以上的词组成的,没有完整的句子结构,但又有一定的语法和逻辑关系的词的组合就是短语或词组。短语又包括固定短语,和自由短语。
    比如说,put off (推迟),look up(查阅,查字典)have a heavy heart(心情沉重)…我们都习惯称为短语或词组(phrase)。put off是由一个动词和介词组成的,但他在句子中充当一个动词的作用,也就是说在这个词组中,put 是词头(head of the phrase) 所以它是动词词组,或动词短语。

  • 题型特点:

    对于英语学习来说,词汇是基础,掌握并灵活运用英语单词对学好英语至关重要,它会直接影响到我们的听、说、读、写能力。从高考单词拼写试题来看,单词拼写把单词放在句中考查,不仅是单词拼写,而且还要考查单词的形式,即将单词的写与用结合起来。这一点主要是要求学生对词汇的应用要有所掌握,体现了学以致用,从而根据语境选用适当的词。因此,答题时必须认真阅读全句,弄懂句意,在理解的基础上考虑选用适当的词汇。所考词汇多为多音节词,多数单词均有不同的变化形式,一般不少于4个字母。

    题型种类:

    1、句子中被考查的单词突出,画横线,横线标有该单词的首字母,要求学生写出该单词的正确形式。
    2、句子中被考查的单词突出,画横线,横线后的括号内注有汉语,要求学生写出该单词的正确形式。

     

  • 例题解析:

    (一)读懂句意,确定单词。
    例如:The f____day of the week is Sunday. 该句意为“一周的第一天是星期天”,需要填的词的首字母是“f”,根据常识和序数词有关知识应填“第一”,故填 first。此类题还可考月份。
    例如::September is the n ____ month of the year (答案:ninth)

    (二)瞻前顾后,确定形式写出单词后,还要注意分析该单词是否需要变化形式。现分类说明如下:
    1、名词一般考虑单、复数和所有格。
    例1:Do you like white?We have shirts of different c____. 根据句意,可确定单词为“color”,通过前面的shirts和different两词可确定此处应用colors。
    例2:September10 this T____Day. 根据句意,确定单词“Teacher”,它与Day之间存在所有格关系,将Teacher变为复数,再变为所有格,应填Teachers'。
    2、形容调和副词这两类词学生极易混淆,做题时应仔细分析,慎重选择究竟用哪类词,有时还要考虑到形容词和副词“级”的变化。
    例1:He was very a____with the man upstairs and began to shout, "Stop singing!" 根据句意,此处应填形容词原级angry。
    例2:On Sundays, Children play h____in the park. 此处应填副词happily,副词修饰动词。
    3、动词动词变化形式较为复杂,一般有五种:动词原形、第三人称单数形式、现在分词,过去式和过去分词。可综合考查学生运用英语知识的能力。
    例1:Thank you very much for l____me your bike. 介词后动词用-ing形式,故填lending。
    例2:When he was ten, he became i____in maths. become interested in 为固定词组,意为“对……感兴趣”,故此处应填interested。
    4、数词注意确定用基数词还是序数词。
    例1:There are t____months in a year. 此处应用基数词twelve。
    例2:December is the t____month of the year. 此处应填序数词twelfth。
    5、代词主要从人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词和疑问代词几方面考虑,有时还要考虑用单数还是用复数。
    例1:Help y____to some fish, Jim. 根据句意,此处应用yourself.
    例2:"Help y____to some fish, please." Mrs Green said to the twins. 根据句意,thetwins为复数,故填yourselves。
    6、连词若前后两个词或句子存在转折、因果、并列、选择等关系,一般应填连词。
    例1:She didn't go to school yesterday b____she was il1. 从句和主句互为因果关系,故填because。
    例2:The football match still went on t____it was raining heavily. 该从句为让步状语从句,故应填though。

  • 解题技巧:

    以下是解单词拼写的基本程序:首先要仔细审题,明确大意。在句子缺词的情况下,尽量弄懂句子大意并根据已给出的语境,判断出所缺的单词,试将该单词放入句子当中,看是否能使句子完整,句意明确。注意词性,写出词形。在解题过程中,要特别注意根据句子中所缺成分,判断所缺单词的词类。
    1、名词,就要注意单复数;
    2、动词,就要注意主谓一致、时态和语态的一致性;
    3、形容词和副词,就要注意形容词和副词之间的转化规则;
    4、词组和短语,就要注意固定搭配。
    重读句子,验证答案。完成拼写后,要把句子重读一遍,检查句子是否通顺,单词拼写是否准确无误,单词形式是否正确,如名词的数、格,动词的时态、语态、语气和非谓语形式,形容词、副词的级等。这一步很重要,因为差之毫厘,谬以千里。总而言之,高考单词拼写题既考查学生的词汇量,又考查学生在特定的语境中灵活运用词汇的综合应变能力。要想提高得分率,绝非一日之功。正如谚语所说:“Rome was not built in one day”。所以,考生应该以命题特点为指导,在平时的复习中运用构词法知识多读、多记、多练,并增强语感,辅以行之有效的解题方法,才能熟练掌握,灵活运用,避免出错。

  • 题型拓展:

    1、单纯的翻译题,考查考生对单词的记忆。
    例句:The little girl is wearing a____ (粉红色的)dress. (正确答案:pink)
    2、根据语境要求,填入所写单词的适当形式。
    例句:The story was first written in English and later____ (翻译) into Chinese.(正确答案:translated)
    3、从词在拼写上有可能存在的“盲点”(相对难写、难记)考虑命题。
    例句:The book gives a short ____(描述) of the city.(正确答案:description)
    4、在有可能出现多个近似答案的情况下,对词的用法进行甄别。
    例句:Very few people ____(成功) in losing weight these days.(正确答案:succeed)
    5、从词在用法上有可能存在的“盲点”(相对少见的用法,在一般规律中考查特殊)考虑命题。
    例句:All the boys were standing up ____(笔直). (正确答案:straight)
    6、侧重选择多音节词汇(构成各单词的字母数一般都超过了7个)命题,考查考生对多音节词汇的把握程度。
    例句:One of ____ (邻居) kept a very beautiful garden. (正确答案:neighbours或neighbors)
    7、侧重选择词义较为生僻或使用率偏低的词汇命题,考查考生对单词拼写记忆的广泛程度。
    例句:He turned on the television set hanging from the____ (天花板). (正确答案:ceiling)
    8、侧重从词音与词形不相吻合的部分命题(包括不发音字母),考查考生对单词拼写记忆的准确程度。
    例句:I usually just have a____ (三明治) for lunch. (正确答案:sandwich)
    9、能根据语境的要求,将所给的中文提示(该提示给人以名词或动词的假象)转译成正确的英语表现形式。
    例句:I changed into my sports shoes so that I could walk more____(舒服). (正确答案:comfortably)
    10、对近义词不同搭配用法的一般常识,在有可能出现多个答案的情况下,对词的用法进行反复推敲,考生应对最常用词汇的易混易错现象给予注意。
    例句:A fence at the back of garden (分开) us from the neighbours.(正确答案:separates或separated)
考点名称:从属连词
  • 从属连词的概念:

    连词用于引导从句以形成句子的一部分或修饰句子的构成要素的叫作从属连词。

  • 英语从属连词用法分类详解:

    1、引导时间状语从句的从属连词:
     (1)表示“当…时候”或“每当”的时间连词。主要的when, while, as, whenever:
    如:He jumped up when the phone rang. 电话铃响时他吓了一跳。 
            We listened while the teacher read. 老师朗读时我们听着。
            The phone rang just as I was leaving. 我正要离开,电话铃就响了起来。
    (2)表示“在…之前(或之后)”的时间连词。主要的有before, after:
    如:Turn the lights off before you leave. 离开前请关灯。
            He started the job soon after he left the university. 他大学毕业后就开始做这份工作。
    (3)表示“自从”或“直到”的时间连词。主要的有since, until, till:
    如:He has lived here since he got married. 他结婚后就一直住在这儿。
            Most men worked until[till] they're 65. 大多数男人工作到65岁。
    (4)表示“一…就”的时间连词。主要的有as soon as, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等:
    如:Tell him the news as soon as you see him. 你一见到他就把这消息告诉他。
            I recognized her the moment(that) I saw her. 我一看到她就认出她来了。
            I want to see him the minute(that) he arrives. 他一到来我就要见他。
            I went home directly I had finished work. 我一干完活就回家了。
           Once he arrives, we can start. 他一来我们就可以开始。
    (5)表示“上次”、“下次”、“每次”等的时间连词。主要的有every time(每次),each time(每次),(the) next time(下次),any time(随时),(the) last time(上次),the first time(第一次):
    如:Last time I saw him, he looked ill. 上次我见到他的时候,他好像有病。
            Next time you're in London come and visit us. 你下次来伦敦过来探望我们。
            Do look me up next time you're in London. 你下次到伦敦来,一定来找我。
            Every time I call on him, he is out. 我每次去访问他,他都不在。
           You can call me any time you want to. 你随时都可以给我打电话。
    【注】every time,each time,any time前不用冠词,(the)next time, (the)last time中的冠词可以省略,而the first time中的冠词通常不能省略。
    2、引导条件状语从句的从属连词:
    这类连词主要有if, unless, as[so] long as, incase等:
    如:If anyone calls tell them I'm not at home. 要是有人打电话来,就说我不在家。
            You will fail unless you work hard. 你若不努力就会失败。
            As[So] long as you need me, I'll stay. 只要你需要我,我就留下。
            In case I forget, please remind me about it. 万一我忘记,请提醒我一下。
    【注】在条件状语从句中,通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态。不过,有时表示条件的if之后可能用will,但那不是将来时态,而是表示意愿或委婉的请求(will为情态动词):
    如:If you will wait a moment, I'll fetch the money. 请等一下,我就去拿钱。
    3、引导目的状语从句的从属连词:
    主要有in order that, so that, in case, for fear等:
    如:We used the computer in order that we might save time. 我们使用计算机是为了节约时间。
            Speak clearly so that they may understand you. 说清楚,以便让他们能明白你的意思。
            Be quiet in case you should wake the baby. 安静些,免得把婴儿吵醒。
            He is working hard for fear he should fail. 他努力工作以免会失败。
    4、引导结果状语从句的从属连词:
    主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等:
    如:We're all here now, so that the meeting can begin at last. 我们现在都到齐了,终于能开会了。
            It's so difficult a question that none of us can answer it. 那是一个很难的问题,我们没有一个人能回答。
            He shut the window with such force that the glass broke. 他关窗户用力很大,结果玻璃震破了。
    【注】so that中的that在口语中通常可以省略。
    5、引导原因状语从句的从属连词:
    主要的有because, as, since, seeing(that), now(that), considering(that)等:
    如:He couldn't got to school because he had a cold. 他因患感冒而未能去上学。
            Since everybody is here, let's begin our discussion. 大家都到了,我们就开始吧。
            Seeing that it is 8o'clock, we'll wait no longer. 由于时间已到8点,我们将不再等了。
            Now that you are here, you'd better stay. 你既然来了,最好还是留下吧。
    6、引导让步状语从句的从属连词:
    主要有although, though, eventhough, even if, while, however, whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever等:
    如:Although[Though] he is poor, he is well contented. 他虽穷却能知足常乐。
            Though[Even though] it's hard work, I enjoy it. 尽管是苦活,但我乐意干。
            Even if you don't like wine, try a glass of this. 即使你不喜欢喝酒,也尝尝这杯吧。
    7、引导方式状语从句的从属连词:
    主要有as, like, as if, as though, the way等:
    如:Do it as[like] he does. 像他那样做。
            He behaved as if nothing had happened. 他装作若无其事的样子。
            They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。
            Nobody else loves you the way(=as) I do.没有人像我这样爱你。
    8、引导地点状语从句的从属连词:
    主要有where, wherever, everywhere等:
    如:There were lots of parks where I lived. 我住的地方有许多公园。
            Sit wherever you like. 你想坐在那儿就坐在那儿。
            Everywhere they went, they were warmly welcomed. 他们每到一个地方都受到热烈欢迎。
    9、引导比较状语从句的从属连词:
    主要有than和as…as:
    如:It's easier than I thought. 这比我想像的要容易。
            They are as often wrong as they are right. 他们错对各半。
    10、引导名词性从句的从属连词:
    主要有that, if, whether:
    如:It is clear enough what he meant. 他是什么意思很清楚。 
           Your greatest fault is that you are careless. 你最大的缺点是粗心大意。
           Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen.是否对我们有害还要看一看。
           She didn't say if he was still alive. 她没说他是否还活着。

  • 从属连词知识体系:

     

  • 用作从属连词的六类名词结构:

    英语中有些名词结构可用作从属连词,用以引导状语从句,且主要是时间状语从句。这类结构归纳起来有以下六类:
    一、the+瞬间名词:
    其中的瞬间名词主要包括moment, minute, instant, second等,其意为“一……就……”,相当于as soon as。
    如:The minute he saw her he fell in love. 他对她一见倾心。  
    Telephone me the moment(that) you get the results. 你一有结果,马上给我打电话。 
    I was so tired that I fell asleep the instant I closed my eyes. 我很累,一合上眼就睡着了。
    Sheputdownthereceiverthesecondsherecognizedmyvoice.她一听出是我的声音,马上就放下电话听筒。
    注:其中的瞬间名词后可接that,也可省略。另外,有的个别副词(如directly/immediately等)也可表示类似意思。
    如: Immediately the meal was over,he switchedon the radio.饭一吃完他就把收音机打开。

    二、the+季节名词:
    其中的季节名词包括spring,summer,autumn,winter,其意为“在……的那年春天、夏天、秋天、冬天。
    如:His wife left him thes pring he went abroad.在他出国的那年春天,他的妻子离开了他。
    He sold his house and went to the souththe summer he lost hisjob.在他失业的那年夏天,他卖掉房子去了南方。
    He was sentto prison the winter his third daughter was born.在他第三个女儿出生的那年冬天,他被关进了监狱。
    She got married the autumn she graduated from college.她大学毕业的那年秋天就结婚了。

    三、the+时间名词:
    其中的时间名词主要包括hour,day,night,week,month,season,year等,其意为“在……的时候、那天、那个晚上、那周、那个月、那个季节、那年”。
    如: The hour he wa sin her office,he felt very sad.当他在她办公室的时候,他感到很伤心。
    The day here turned home,his father was already dead.他回家的那一天,他的父亲已经死了。
    The night I wenttoseeher,shehadleftforBeijingtoattendanimportantmeeting.就我去看她的那个晚上,她到北京去开一个重要的会议了。
    Mr Smith didn't go to work the week his wife was ill.史密斯先生在他妻子生病的那个星期没去上班。
    They ear helivedinthecountry,he learned alot.他在乡下呆的那一年,他学到了不少东西。

    四、the+序数词+time
    其中的序数词包括first,second,third,fourth等,其意为“当第几次……的时候”。
    如: My girlfriend beat me at pokert he first time weplayed.我头一次和女朋友打扑克,她就把我赢了。
    These cond time I saw her,she looked like an old woman.我第二次见到她时,她看上去像一个老太婆。
    The third time I went there,I found all of them had left and the offices were all empty.我第三次去那儿时,我发现他们都离开了,所有的办公室都是空的。
    注:
    1.next,last也具有类似序数词的性质,因此也具有以上用法。
    如: Nexttimeyoucomein,pleaseclosethedoor.下次你进来,请关门。
    Thelasttimewetalkedhesaidheneededanothertwodays.上次我们谈话时他说他还需要两天。
    2.thefirsttime,thesecondtime,thethirdtime等用作连词引导时间状语从句时,其前通常要有定冠词,而(the)nexttime,(the)lasttime引导状语从句时,其中的冠词可以省略,如下面这道上海高考题,其答案是C,不是A:
    I though ther nice and honest______Imether.
    A.first time  B.fo rthe first time C.the first timeD.by the first time

    五、不定代词+time
    其中的不定代词主要包括each,every,any等。
    如:Every time I ringher,the phone is engaged.我每次给她打电话,电话都占线。
    Every time I see him he either wants to tell me his trouble or borrow some money.每次我见到他,他不是向我诉苦,就是要向我借钱。
    He felt nervous each times he spoke to him.每次她和他讲话,他都感到紧张。
    AnytimeyoucometoLondondolookmeup.你无论什么时候到伦敦来,一定要来看我。
    注意:everytime,eachtime,anytime用作连词引导状语从句时其前习惯上不用冠词,它与the first time,these cond time,the third time等引导时间状语从句时其前必须要用定冠词不同。

    六、其他名词结构
    以上归纳的名词结构均用于引导时间状语从句,有些其他结构还可引导其他性质的状语从句,如the way可用于引导方式状语从句,表示“像……一样”。如:
    The didn’t do it the way we do now.那时他们不像我们现在这样行事。
    Joyce looked at me the way alotof girls did.乔伊丝像许多姑娘那样瞧着我。
    注:这样用的theway与as用法相似。
    如:Hold itin both hands,the way(=as)Mummy does.用两只手捧住,像妈妈那样。

考点名称:过去分词
  • 过去分词的概念:

    过去分词一般表示完成和被动的动作,只有一种形式。即:动词原形加-ed构成。
    如:fallen leaves 落叶 
            boiled water 开水
            I heard the door closed. 我听见门被关上了。

  • 过去分词与现在分词被动式的区别:

    两者均可表示被动,其区别主要在于它们所表示的时间概念不同,但有时它们也可表示相同的意思。
    如:Written in haste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。 
            Being written in haste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。 
            Having been written in haste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。
    有时虽然所表示的时间概念相同,但有细微区别:
    如:Having been show the lab, we left. 被领着看了实验室后,我们就离开了。

  • 过去分词的句法功能:

    1、作定语:
    如:I don't like the book written by Martin.
           Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。 
    注意:当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。
    2、过去分词作表语:
    如:They were very excited at the news. 听到这个消息,他们非常激动。
            The window is broken. 窗户破了。
            They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。
    注意:be+过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。
    区别:The window is broken.(系表)
                The window was broken by the boy.(被动)
    有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。
    如:boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶) newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳) the changed world(变了的世界)
    这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed等。
    3、过去分词作宾语补足语:
    如:I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。
    有时过去分词做with短语中的宾语补足语:
    如:With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。
    4、过去分词作状语:
    如:Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents.  受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因)
            Onceseen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间)
            Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件) 
            Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy.  虽然被告之危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步) 
            Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。
    5、过去分词与逻辑主语构成独立主格:
    如:All books returned at the end of the term, the library assistant was satisfied. 所有的书期末时都还了,图书管理员很高兴。
            The field ploughed, he began to spread seed. 地耕好了,他开始撒种子。

  • 现在分词与过去分词的区别:

    1、分词作表语:
    分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如excite,interest等都是及物动词,汉语意思不是“激动”,“高兴”,而是“使激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed形式。换句话说,若人对……感兴趣,就是somebody is in terestedi n...,若人/物本身有兴趣时,就是说sb./sth. is interesting。这类词常见的有:
    interesting 使人感到高兴—interested感到高兴的 
    exciting令人激动的—excited感到激动的
    delighting令人高兴的—delighted感到高兴的 
    disappointing令人失望的—disappointed感到失望的
    encouraging令人鼓舞的—encouraged感到鼓舞的
    pleasing令人愉快的—pleased感到愉快的
    puzzling令人费解的—puzzled感到费解的
    satisfying令人满意的—satisfied感到满意的
    surprising令人惊异的—surprised感到惊异的
    worrying令人担心的—worried感到担心的
    如:Travelling is interesting but tiring. 旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。
            The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much. 如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。 
            The game is exciting. (现在分词作表语)
            We were excited at the news. (过去分词作表语)

    2、分词作定语:
    分词作定语时有下面几个特点:
    1)现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词一般表示被动含意。
    2)现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态或做完(完成)的事。
    如:He rushed into the burning house. 他冲进了正在燃烧着的房子。
            The child standing over there is my brother. 站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。
            The room facing south is our classroom. 朝南的房间是我们的教室。
            He is an advanced teacher. 他是个先进教师。
    3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义,这点要注意:
    departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, frown-up, retired,  returned, risen, set, vanished, much-traveled, newly-arrived, recently-come

    3、分词作状语:
    现在分词做状语与过去分词做状语的最主要区别在于两者与所修饰的主语的主动与被动关系的区别。
    1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。
    如:He went out shutting the door behind him. 他出去后将门随手关上。
            Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help. 由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。
            Smiling, they came in.
    2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。
    如:Cleaned, the room looks nice.
            Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.  如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。
            Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them. 在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。

考点名称:一般过去时
  • 一般过去时的概念

    一般过去时表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为;过去主语所具备的能力和性格。

  • 一般过去时的用法:  

    1、表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示过去时间的副词如:yesterday,last week,two hours ago等连用。  
    如:My family moved here five years ago. 我家五年前搬到了这里。  
            I was born in 1973. 我生于1973年。  
    2、表示过去一段时间经常或反复发生的动作。这时可与频度副词如:often,usually,always等连用。  
    如:He always worked in tonight those days. 那些日子他总是工作到深夜。  
            I often left on business in 1987. 1987年我经常出差。  
    :表示“过去经常,而今不再”时,要用usedto.
    如:I used to read newspaper after breakfast. 我过去经常早饭后看报纸。(意指现在已不是这样)   
    The children often swam in this river. 孩子们过去经常在这条河里游泳。  
    3、表示过去发生的一连串动作。  
    如:He put down the heavy box, took out the keys, and opened the door. 他放下这沉重的箱子,掏出钥匙开了房门。  
    注:过去发生的一连串动作,若用and,or,but等并列连词连接,则一律用过去式。  
    如:They moved the chairs to the table, sat down and began to have  supper. 他们把椅子搬到桌边,坐下开始吃饭。  
    4、在时间和条件状语从句中,用一般过去时表示过去将来的动作。  
    如:He said that he would let me know as soon as he got the information. 他说他一得到消息就立即让我知道。         
    Mary told me that she would stay at home if it rained. 玛丽告诉我如果下雨她就呆在家里。

  • 一般过去时的特别用法

    1、句型:It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"。
    例如:It is time for you to go to bed.你该睡觉了。  
                It is time that sb.did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了"。
    例如:It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。  
    2、would(had)rather sb.did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。
    例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow. 还是明天来吧。
    3、wish, wonder, think, hope等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。
    例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。
    比较:Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间。)  
                Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着)  
                Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)      
                Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.(含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)
    注意:用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。
    1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend等。
    例如:Did you want any thing else? 您还要些什么吗?   
                I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。
    2)情态动词could, would。
    例如:Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗?

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