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  3. 八年级英语
  4. it 的用法

______ is difficult to work out the math problem. [ ]A. That B. This C. It D. One

一、题文

______ is difficult to work out the math problem.
[     ]
A. That
B. This
C. It
D. One

考点提示:it 的用法

二、答案

C

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《______ is difficult to work out the math problem. [ ]A. That B. This C. It D. One》这道题主要考你对 it 的用法 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:it 的用法

考点名称:it 的用法
  • “It”用法及其句型和固定搭配,是英语语法的重点、难点,又是近几年考试的热点,因此在复习中应给予足够的重视。
  • It 句型归纳:
    1. It is +adj.(+for sb./sth.) + to do sth.
    用于此句型的形容词有:easy, hard, difficult,possible, important, impossible, necessary, good, bad, exciting, interesting, surprising等。如:
     It is necessary to change your job.
     It was very hard for them to walk such a long way in the snow.
    2.It is +n.(+for sb./sth.) + to do sth.
    用于此句型的名词有: pity, shame, pleasure, one’s duty, one’s job, fun, joy, good manners, bad manners等。如:
     It is a pity for you to have missed such a wonderful play.
     It is bad manners for the young to take up the seats for the old.
    3.It is +adj.+of sb.+to do sth.
    此句型中的形容词主要描述某人的品德、特征。能用于该句型的形容词有: kind, nice, wise,
    silly, polite, impolite, friendly, foolish, clever等。如:
     How silly it was of you to give up such a good chance!
     It is friendly of the family to try to make me feel at home in their house.
    4.It is +adj.(+n.)+doing sth.
    此句型中的形容词和名词常见的有:no/little use, no/much good, useless等。如:
     It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
    5.It takes sb.+一段时间+to do sth. 表示“做某事花费某人多长时间”。如:
    It took us half an hour to ride to the town by the sea.
    6.It is +及物动词的过去分词+that从句
    此句型中常见的及物动词的过去分词有:said, told, known, reported, recorded, thought, believed, considered等。如:
    It is reported that the Russian President will visit China next week.
    7.It +不及物动词+that从句
    此句型中不及物动词常见的有:seem, happen, appear, matter等。如:
     It seems that there will be a heavy snow tomorrow.
     It happened that I met my good friends in the museum yesterday.
    8.强调句型:It is+被强调部分+that/who从句
    在使用强调句型时要注意,指人时可以用who或that,其它情况一律用that。如:
     It was under the bed that my brother hid the ball this morning.
     It is Mr Bell who/that often comes and looks after the old man.
    9.It is/has been+一段时间+since从句。如:
    It is /has been three years since we saw each other last.
    10.It is (high) time that sb. did sth.
    该句型表示“某人现在该做某事了”,从句常用过去时(虚拟语气)说明现在应该做的事情。如:
     It’s six o’clock.It is high time that we went home now.

    It 常用的固定搭配:
    1. make it
    (1)在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达
    例  It's hard to make it to the top in show business.
    (2)在口语中相当于fix the date for,表示“约定好时间”
    例  —Shall we meet next week?
    —OK. We just make it next Saturday.
    2. as it is
    (1)相当于in fact,in reality表示“事实上,实际情况是……”
    例  We had planed to finish the task today,but as it is we probably won't finish it until next week.
    (2)相当于方式状语从句,表示“照原样”
    例  Leave the table as it is.
    3. as it were
    相当于as one might say,that is to say,表示“也就是说,可以说,换句话说”
    例  He is,as it were,a modern Sherlock Holmes.
    4. if it weren't for…/if it hadn't been for…
    用来引导虚拟语气,相当于without,or but for,表示“如果不是……,要不是……”
    例  If it weren't for Tom,I wouldn't be alive today.
    5. that's it
    (1)相当于That's all. That's so much. 表示“至此为止,没有别的了”
    例  You can have one more sweet,and that's it.
    (2)相当于 That's right.表示“对啦”
    例  — I guess the key to the problem is thechoice “A”
    —That's it.
    6. catch it
    在口语中,相当于be punished/scolded for doing sth. wrong. 表示“因做错事而挨骂,受责备,受批评,受惩罚”
    例  We'll really catch it form our teacher if we're late for class again.
    7. have it
    (1)相当于say,insist表示“说,主张,表明,硬说”
    例  Rumour has it that they are getting divorced.
    (2)相当于get to know something,表示“了解,知道,获悉”
    例  I had it from John that she was going abroad.
    8. have what it takes
    在口语中,相当于be well qualified for,表示“具有成功的条件”
    例  You can take it from me that your daughter has what it takes to be a star.
    9. so it seems / appears.
    10. Keep at it!(Don't give up!)
    相当于go on,表示“继续做,不放弃”
    例  My teacher asked me to keep at it.
    11. Go it!(Go on!)拼命干,莽撞
    12. Now you have done it!(You have done sth. wrong.)
    13. Now you'll catch it!(You'll be punished.)
    14. As it happened,…
    在口语中,相当于it's a pity that…,表示“真不凑巧,真遗憾”
    例  As it happened,they were out.
    15. As it turned out,…
    在口语中,相当于it was found to be in the end,表示“最后被证明是”
    例  As it turned out,his statement was false.
    16. Such as it is(they are)
    在口语中,相当于although it may not be worth much,表示“虽然没有多大价值”
    例  You can borrow my exam notebook,such as it is.
    17. Take it/things easy.
    相当于Don't worry or don't hurry. 用来劝告别人,表示“不要慌,别担心,存住气”
    例  Take it easy! He will do it well.
    18. Take it from me.
    在口语中,相当于believe me what I say.表示“请相信我的话,我敢担保”
    例  You can take it from me that he will make it this time.
    19. For what it is worth…
    在口语中,相当于although I'm not sure it's of value,表示“不管其价值如何”
    例  Here is the article I promise you,for what it's worth.
    20. Worth it
    在口语中,相当于useful,表示“有好处,值得做”
    例  Don't hesitate about it! It's worth it.
    21. Believe it or not.表示“信不信由你”
    例  Believe it or not,Tom is getting married to Mary next Sunday.
    22. Take it or leave it. v. 要么接受要么放弃
    例  That is my last offer. You can take it or leave it.
    23. It all depends/that all depends
    在口语中,相当于it hasn't been decided yet,表示“那得看情况,还没有定下来”
    例  —Are you going to the countryside for holiday?
    —It/That all depends.
    24. It's up to sb.
    在口语中,相当于it's decided by sb. 表示“由……决定,由……负责,取决于……”
    例  —Shall we go out for dinner?
    —It's up to you.
  • it用法小结:
    It用作实词
    表达以下概念:
    指代前文提到的事物,前文中的this, that;
    替代前文中的内容;
    指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人;
    指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事;
    指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象。

    一、it 作人称代词的用法
    1. 指事物
    作为人称代词,it 可以除人以外的一切事物或动物。如:
    I dropped my watch and it broke. 我把手表掉在地上摔坏了。
    It’s hard work, but I enjoy it. 工作很辛苦,可是我乐意干。
    “Where is the dog?” “It’s in the bedroom. ” “狗在哪?”“在卧室里”。
    2. 指人
    it 指人主要用于指不性别不明的婴儿或用于确认某人的身份。如:
    Is it a boy or a girl? 是男孩还是女孩?
    There is a knock on the door. It must be the postman. 有人在敲门,一定是邮递员。
    【说明】在答语中,常用来指本人,如说 It’s me。
    3. 代替某些代词
    代词 it 还可用于代替指示代词this, that 以及复合不定代词 something, anything, nothing等。如:
    “What’s this?” “It’s a new machine. ” “这是什么?”“是一种新机器”。
    Nothing is wrong, is it? 没出什么问题,是吗?

    二、it 作非人称代词的用法
    1. 基本用法
    it 作非人称代词的用法,主要用于指时间、距离、价值、天气、气候及温度等自然现象。如:
    It’s too late to go there now. 现在去那儿已经太迟了。
    It rained all day yesterday. 昨天下了一天的雨。
    It can get very hot here. 这里有时会很热。
    2. 用于某些句型
    It’s time for sth. 该做某事了。
    It’s time to do sth. 该做某事的时候了。
    It’s time for sb to do sth. 某人该干某事了。
    It’s (about / high) time + that-从句. 某人该做某事了。(从句谓语用过去式,有时也用“should+动词原形”)
    It’s first (second) time + that-从句. 某人第几次干某事。(从句谓语用现在完成时)
    It’s + 时间段 + since-从句. 自从……有一段时间了。
    It’s + 时间段 + before-从句. 过多长的时间才……

    三、it用作形式主语
    1. 基本用法
    当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作句子主语时,为保持句子平衡,通常把真正的主语放在句末,而在句首使用形式主语it。如:
    It’s very important to remember this. 记住这一点很重要。
    It’s hard work climbing mountains. 爬山是费劲的事。
    It’s unknown when he will come. 他什么时候来还不知道。
    2. 用作形式主语的的重要句型
    (1) It + be + adj. for (of) sb to do sth 某人做某事……
    It is hard for him to make up his mind. 他很难下定决心。
    It was foolish of her to say such a thing. 她说那样的话,真是太蠢了。
    【说明】介词 of 与 for 的区别是:
    of 用于指某人的性格、属性、特征等,介词for表示对象,意为“对……来说” 。
    (2) It takes sb + 时间段 + to do sth. 某人做某事花了……时间
    It takes years to master a new language. 要花多年的时间才能掌握一门新的语言。
    【说明】此句型可以有以下多变种变体:It took me an hour to write the letter.
    =The letter took me an hour (to write). =I took an hour to write the letter. 我写这封信花了一个小时
    (3) It is up to sb to do sth. 该由某人做某事
    It’s up to you to to make the choice. 得由你来作选择。
    (4) it look (seem, appear, happen, occur) that [as if]… 似乎……
    It seemed as though he didn’t recognize me. 他似乎没认出我来。
    It happened that I was out when he called. 他打电话时我碰巧不在家。
    (5) If it were not for… / If it hadn’t been for… 若不是因为……
    If it were not for their help, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. 要不是他们帮助,这些困难我们不克服不了的。

    四、it用作形式宾语
    1. 基本用法
    当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作宾语且其后跟有宾语补足语时,通常会在宾语补足语前使用形式宾语,而将真正的宾语移至句末。
    其基本结构为“动词+it+宾语补足语+不定式(动名词或从句)”。如:
    I find it difficult to do the job well. 我发现做好这件事不容易。
    I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好住这儿。
    We think it no use complaining. 我们认为抱怨是没有用的。
    2. 用作形式宾语的几个特殊结构
    (1) 动词+ it + that-从句。如:
    I like it that you came. 你来了,我很高兴。
    I take it (that) he will come on time. 我认为他会准时来的。
    You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。
    Rumor has it that the defence minister will soon resign. 据传闻,国防部长不久就要辞职。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 have, take, put, like 等。
    (2) 动词 + it + when (if)-从句。如:
    I dislike it when you whistle. 我不爱听你吹口哨。
    We really appreciate it when she offered to help. 她来帮忙了,我们十分感激。
    I’d prefer it if I didn’t have to do so much work. 要是我不必做那么多工作,好就太好了。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, appreciate, prefer 等。
    (3) 动词 + prep + it + that-从句。如:
    See to it that you’re not late again. 注意千万不要再迟到。
    Look to it that this doesn’t happen again. 注意不要再发生这种事。
    You may rely on it that he’ll come to meet you. 你放心,他会来接你的。
    I can’t answer for it that he will come. 我不能保证他会来。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有see to, look to, insist on, stick to, depend on, answer for 等。
    (4) 动词 + it + 介词短语+ that-从句。如:
    I owe it to you that I am still alive. 多亏有你我才仍然活着。
    I took it for granted that he would help us. 我认为他会帮助我们的。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有take it for granted, bring it to sb’s attention, owe it to sb 等。

    it在强调句中的使用
    It is+被强调部分+that(who)+其他
    在使用强调句型时需注意以下几点:
    1. 请注意强调句型的特殊疑问句 
    2. 在强调原因状语从句时,只能强调由because所引导的从句。
    3. 在强调not … until结构时必须把not与until一起放到被强调的位置上。
    4. 注意强调句型与定语从句的区别。
    5. 不管被强调部分是单数还是复数,其前一律用It is / It was,而不能用They are / There were之类的。
    6. 被强调部分是指人时,被强调部分后可用that / who,被强调部分指物时,被强调部分后只能用that。
    7. 被强调部分是指时间或地点时,被强调部分后通常用that,一般不用when,where之类的。例:
    It is I who am right. 是我对。
    It was you that were wrong. 是你错了。
    It was in the Japan that he died. 他是死于日本。
    It was yesterday that he got married. 他是昨天结婚的。
    It was a computer that he bought last week. 他上个星期买的是一台电脑。
    Where was it that she lived? 她是住在什么地方?
    When was it that he left for Japan? 他是什么时候离开去日本的?
    Who is it that teaches you English? 是谁教你们英语?

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