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  4. 一般现在时一般将来时状语从句

I don't know if she tomorrow. If she tomorrow,I'll call you. [ ]A. comes ; comes B. comes

一、题文

I don't know if she     tomorrow. If she     tomorrow,I'll call you.
[     ]
A. comes ; comes
B. comes ; will come
C. will come ; comes
D. will come;is coming

考点提示:一般现在时,一般将来时,状语从句

二、答案

C

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《I don't know if she tomorrow. If she tomorrow,I'll call you. [ ]A. comes ; comes B. comes》这道题主要考你对 一般现在时一般将来时状语从句 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:一般现在时,一般将来时,状语从句

考点名称:一般现在时
  • 一般现在时:
    :表示通常性、规律性、习惯性的状态或者动作(有时间规律发生的事件)的一种时间状态。
  • 一般现在时的具体用法:
    1. 表示经常的或习惯性的动作,常与表示频率的时间状语连用。    
    e.g.  I leave home for school at 7:00 every morning. 
    2. 表示客观事实和普遍真理。    
    e.g.  The earth moves around the sun.
    3. 表示现在发生的具体动作或存在的状态 
    e.g. He lives in Beijing now.
    4. 习惯性的爱好或行为
    e.g. I like dancing while she likes singing.
    5. 表示预先计划或安排好的行为。 
    e.g.  Our class begins at 7:45.
    6. 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替将来时。 
    e.g.  If you come, we will wait for you.
    7. 表示格言或警句中。 
    e.g.  Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 
    8.表示主语具备的性格、能力、特征和状态。 
    e.g. I don't want so much. 
    Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.
    比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. 
      I am doing my homework now.
    9.在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替将来时。 
    10.小说故事用一般现在时代替一般过去时。新闻报道类的内容,为了体现其“新鲜”性,也用一般现在时来表示过去发生的事情。 
    11.有些表示状态和感觉的动词表示现在发生的具体行为时,只用一般现在时,而不用进行时态。 
    注意★:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 
    例:Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me,I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。
  • 一般现在时与现在进行时的区别:
    一、两种时态的主要含义:
    一般现在时
    1.表示事物的本质特性或客观存在,没有时限性。
    The table ____ soft。(feels) 表特性特征。
    Japan ___ in the east of China。 (lives) 表客观事实
    2.现阶段经常性、习惯性的行为,可带频率时间。
    The shop closes at 7:30 p.m.
    Father doesn’t smoke. (习惯)
    3.表说话时的状态,感觉或结果,一般用状态动词,如:
    It doesn’t matter. Does it hurt? (感觉结果)
    4.特殊用法:
    -在条件、时间、让步从句中用现在时代替将来。
    -If you go there,I’ll help you.
    —用在begin,come,go,leave,return,open,close 等短暂谓语动词表规定计划。
    The plane takes off at 11:30. (不受主观支配的计划)
    -在剧本、解说、标题或there(here)开头的句中表进行
    There goes the bell/Here comes Mr.Wang.
    I declare the meeting opens.(正在宣布)
    He meets the ball and hits back to No.2 (正在发生)

    现在进行时
    1.说话时正在发生,进行的动作
    Look! Dark clouds are gathering . (正在发生)
    2.表现阶段正在进行,但此刻不一定正在进行的事。
    He usually gets up at 6:00,but this week he is getting up at 7:00.
    (现阶段正在进行,但说话时不一定在起床)
    3.现在进行时的特殊意义
    -表示主观打算常用于 go,come,leave,start,begin 等,位移、趋向动词。
    How long are you staying here (准备停留)
    -表示眼前刚过去的语意即“话音刚落”,适用于tell,say,talk,discuss
    You don’t believe it You know I’m telling the truth.
    -表示安慰、关心、喜欢、讨厌等感情色彩。
    He is always making noises in class. (讨厌)
    -在条件、时间、让步状语从句中表示将来正在进行。
    Don’t bother him if he is reading this time tomorrow.

    二、严格区分进行时与一般时的语义
    1. 持续动词的一般时表持续情况,经常性,习惯性行为或客观存在的事实,进行时表暂时性或有限时刻的持续。
    2.短暂动词的一般时叙述事实,特征,能力而短暂动作进行时描述反复发生,即将发生或刚开始行为。
    3.短暂动词和静态动词一般时表示实际情况客观状态、结果、特征、特性,进行时表未完成含开始或渐进之意。
    The bus stops. (车停了-事实)
    The bus is stopping. (渐渐停下来)
    I love the job. (静态事实)
    I am loving the job. ( 渐渐爱上了)
    4.come,go,leave,start,return,move,reach,sail,fall 等一般时态表客观规定计划,进行时表主观打算推测。
    Flight 254 leaves at 5:30. (表主观打算)
    The plane is taking off an hour later.(主观判断)
    5.现在进行时带always,often,usually,sometimes,等频率副词表感情色彩,一般现在时则没有此用法。
  • 一般现在时的句子转换:
    (1)当句子中有be动词或情态动词时,则把be动词或情态动词(can,could等等)提到主语的前面变成疑问句;在be动词或情态动词后面加not变成否定句.
    例:
    ①陈述句:She is a student.
    疑问句→ Is she a student?
    否定句→ She is not a student.
    ②陈述句:I can swim.
    疑问句→ Can you swim
    否定句→ I can not swim.

    (2)当句子中即没有be动词,也没有情态动词时,则在主语前加助动词do (you,以及复数),does(单数she,he,it)变成问句;
    在主语后谓语动词前加助动词don’t(I,you,以及复数), doesn’t(单数she,he,it)变成否定句,助动词后的动词要变成动词原形。
    例:
    ①陈述句:We get up at 7:00 every morning.
    疑问句→Do you get up at 7:00 every morning?
    否定句→We don’t get up at 7:00 every morning.
    ②陈述句:She has a little brother.
    疑问句→ Does she have a little brother?
    否定句→ She doesn’t have a little brother.

    一般现在时的表达方法:
    主要通过谓语动词的变化和用时间词语来表示,其中最主要的是谓语动词的变化。现在一般时动词变化的规则是:
    1.如果主语是名词复数和第一人称I、 we ,谓语动词不用做任何变化,即仍然用动词原形表示:
    We usually go to school at 7:30. 我们通常7:30上学去。[go]
    My parents give ten yuan to my sister every week.我父母每星期给我妹妹十元钱。[give]

    2.主语是任何一个单数名词或者是第三人称单数,谓语动词要进行必要的变化。特别提一点:不可数名词也算作单数处理。

    3.谓语动词的变化规律是:
    第三人称单数的构成见下表:

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    构成

    举例

    一般情况

    词尾+s

    动词原形

    第三人称单数

    work(工作)
    stop(
    停止)

    works
    stops

    -ch, -sh, s, x, o结尾

    词尾+es

    teach()
    wash(
    )
    dress(
    装扮)
    fix(
    安装)
    go(
    )

    teaches
    washes
    dresses
    fixes
    goes

    辅音字母+y”结尾

    yi,再加es

    fly(飞翔)
    try(
    尝试)

    flies
    tries

    特殊变化的词:
    be (是) - am,is,are
    I am
    she/he/it,名词单数都用 is
    we,you,they,名词复数都用are
    have (有) - have,has
    I,we,you,they,名词复数都用have
    she/he/it is,名词单数都用 has

    助动词,不论单复数、不论什么人称都没有变化,都用 can,may,must,need,ought to 等。
    而且,句子中有了助动词,谓语动词就不需要有任何变化了,即用动词原形表示。例:
    We have six classes every day. 我们每天上六节课。
    I often get up at 6:30. 我经常6:30起床。
    Jack likes Chinese food very much.杰克很喜欢中国饮食。
    We can see some pictures on the wall. 我们能看到墙上的画。

    4.一般现在时常用的时间词语
    常用于一般现在时的词语有 sometimes/usually/often/every day(week,year)/ now/always 等。
    这些时间词语只是辅助作用,这些词语也可用于其它的时态,所以谓语动词变化才是最关键的。
    注意:当表现强烈的感情色彩时,尽管有如 always/never/seldom 等频率副词,但一般在频率副词前加上be动词,后面变为动词的现在分词形式。
    例:My father lose his key again. He is always losing his key.

  • 一般现在时的基本结构:


    一般现在时中当主语为第三人称单数的时,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式。

考点名称:一般将来时
  • 一般将来时:
    表示将来某一时刻的发生动作或状态,或将来某一段时间内经常的动作或状态。
    一般句型有:
    肯定句:
    I/We shall/will go. You/He/She/They will go.
    否定句:
    I/We shall/will not go. You/He/She/They will not go.
    疑问句:
    Shall I/we go? Will you/he/she/they go?
    简略回答:
    (肯)Yes,主语shall/will (否) No,主语 shall/will not
    特殊疑问句:
    一般将来时的特殊疑问句是将疑问词放在句首,后接一般疑问句(就主语提问时,以疑问词who开头的疑问词除外)
    Why will you be here on Sunday?(周日你为什么将要在这儿?)
    I will have a meeting on Sunday(我将要在周日举行一个聚会)
    (对特殊疑问句要进行具体回答)
    一般疑问句:
    be或will提到句首,some改any,and改or,第一二人称互换
    We are going to go on an outing this weekend.
    Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?
    被动句:
    will/shall+be+v.ed(及物动词过去分词)
    The letter will be sent tomorrow.
    这封信明天将寄出去
    We shall be punished if we break the rule.
    如果我们违反规定,我们将受到惩罚。

  • 一般将来时的构成:
    1. 用will或shall表示   
    “助动词will或shall+动词原形”这一形式,表示将来发生的事情,用于征求对方的意见或表示客气的邀请。在口语中will用于所有人称,书面语中第一人称常用shall,如:   
    ①Tomorrow will be Sunday. 明天就是星期天。    
    ②The rain will stop soon. 雨很快就要停了。    
    ③Shall we go there at five? 我们五点钟去那儿,好吗?   
    ④Will you please open the door? 请你把门打开,好吗?   
    2. 用be going to结构表示    
    “be going to+动词原形”用来表示近期或事先考虑过的将要发生的动作以及已有迹象 表明必将发生某事,意为“打算;就要”。如:    
    ①We’re going to meet outside the school gate. 我们打算在校门口见面。    
    ②Look! It's going to rain. 瞧!快下雨了。   
    3. 用现在进行时表示   
    表示位置转移的动词(如:go, come, leave, start, arrive等),可用现在进行时表示将来时。如:   
    ①Uncle Wang is coming. 王叔叔就要来了。   
    ②They’re leaving for Beijing. 他们即将前往北京。   
    4. 用一般现在时表示   
    根据规定或时间表预计要发生的动作,在时间和条件状语从句中,都可用一般现在时表示将来时。如:   
    ①The new term starts (begins) on August 29th. 新学期八月二十九日开学。    
    ②If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go out for a picnic.
    如果明天不下雨,我们将出去野餐。   
    5. 用“be+动词不定式”或用“be about to +动词原形”的结构表示,如:   
    ①He is to visit Japan next year. 明年他将访问日本。    
    ②They’re about to leave. (=They’re leaving.) 他们就要走了。
  • be going to与will的区别:
    be going to与will两者都可表示将要发生的事、将要去做某事,但它们有如下几点区别:
    1. be going to 表示近期、将要发生的事情,will 表示的将来的时间则较远一些,如:
    He is going to write a letter tonight.
    He will write a book one day.
    2. be going to 表示根据主观判断将来肯定发生的事情,will表示客观上将来势必发生的事情。
    He is seriously ill. He is going to die.
    He will be twenty years old.
    3. be going to 含有“计划,准备”的意思,而 will 则没有这个意思,如:
    She is going to lend us her book.
    He will be here in half an hour.
    4.在有条件从句的主句中,一般不用 be going to, 而多用will, 如:
    If any beasts comes at you, I'll stay with you and help you

    shall和will区别:
    1.shall和will常常缩写成'll,紧接在主语之后。其否定式 shall not 和will not 的缩写式分别为 shan't 和 won't。
    基本句型:
    be to表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。后+动词原形。
    be about to+动词原形,意为马上作某事,不能与tomorrow,next week等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。
    2.will和shall在句子中所表达的“意志”是不同的,当句子主语是第一人称(I)的时候表示的是主语 I 的自主“意志”。
    例:I will be clear tomorrow . 我会把这件事弄个水落石出
    分析:这个句子中用will时,主语 I(我) 就带有强烈的意志,意思是我想让事情水落石出,并且有我会为此付诸努力的意思。
    3.当第一人称,用shall的时候就是一个普通的句子,就没有主语的意志。
    I shall come back in ten minutes .这句话就是单纯的说 我会在10分钟后回来 没有别的意思
    I will come back in ten minutes. 而这句话就有一种意境上的不同。
    我会在10分钟后回来,其中的意思还有,就算我有事耽搁了我也会想办法在10分钟后回来的意思
    4.shall在第二 、三人称时也和will在第一人称一样。也只有在二三人称才带有意志,只不过shall带有的是“说话者”的意志。而不是主语的意志。
    如:he shall be rewarded. 他会得到回报
    分析这句话更深度的意思,我说过在shall用在第二三人称时有强烈的“说话者”的意志。
    而这句话的“说话者”意志就是 他会得到回报,就算他没有得到回报“说话者”也会想办法让“he”得到回报。

  • 一般现在时的用法:
    基本用法:
    (1)一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或情况。
    例如:I will(shall) arrive tomorrow.我明天到。(主语是第一人称时最好用shall)
    Will you be free tonight? 你今晚有空吗?
    We won’t (shan’t) be busy this evening. 我们今晚不忙。
    (2)在一般将来时的句子中,有时有表示将来时间的状语,有时没有时间状语,这时要从意思上判断是否指未来的动作或情况。
    例如:Will she come? 她(会)来吗?
    (3)在以第一人称I或we作主语的问句中,一般使用助动词shall,这时或是征求对方的意见(a),或是询问一个情况(b):
    a. Where shall we meet? 我们在哪儿碰头?
    b. Shall we have any classes tomorrow?明天我们有课吗?
    在这类问句中,近几年来也有不少人用will,特别是在美国。例如:
    How will I get there? 我怎么去?
    (4)be going to+ 动词原形
    a.表示计划、打算、准备做的事。例如:
    We are going to put up a building here.我们打算在这里盖一座楼。
    How are you going to spend your holidays?假期你准备怎样过?
    b.表示即将发生或肯定要发生的事。例如:
    I think it is going to snow. 我看要下雪了。

    其他用法:
    一般将来时表示将来某一时刻的动作或状态,其表达形式除了“shall(第一人称),will(第二、三人称)+动词原形构成”外,还有以下几种形式。
    一.“be going to+动词原形”表示即将发生的或打算进行的事。例如:
    ①It is going to rain. 要下雨了。
    ②We are going to have a meeting today. 今天我们开会。
    二.go, come,start,move,sail,leave,arrive,stay,live,fly,等可用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动作(行进式动词)。
    例如:I'm leaving for Beijing.
    三.“be to+动词原形”表示按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见。例如:
    ①Are we to go on with this work?我们继续干吗?
    ②The boy is to go to school tomorrow.这个男孩明天要去上学。
    四.“be about to+动词原形”表示即将发生的动作,意为:很快,马上。后面一般不跟时间状语。例如:
    We are about to leave.我们马上就走。
    五.某些词,如come, go, leave, arrive, start, get, stay ,live,fly等的一般现在时也可表示将来。
    ①The meeting starts at five o'clock.会议五点开始。
    ②He gets off at the next stop.他下一站下车。
    六。“be due to"构成的谓语,意味“定于…”也可表示将来时。

  • 主将从现:
    主将从现是指在时间状语从句和条件状语从句和让步状语从句中,如果主句是一般将来时,从句用一般现在时替代一般将来时。
    主将从现常见的有以下四种情况:
    一、时间状语从句的主句是一般将来时,那么从句常常用一般现在时。
    如: When I grow up, I’ll be a nurse and look after patients.我长大后要当一名护士,照顾病人。

    二、如果主句是祈使句,那么从句通常要用一般现在时
    如:Don’t laugh at me when I make a mistake.我犯错误的时候不要笑话我。

    三、如果主句是含有情态动词的一般现在时,根据需要从句多用一般现在时
    如:You should be quiet when you are in the reading room.在阅览室时应保持安静。

    四、 如果if的条件状语从句遇到变换间接和直接时 , 祈使句应用not to....
    如:She said not to close the window
    常见的时间状语从句的连词有:as soon as,when,while ,as,until等
    主将从现说的是在含有时间状语从句和条件状语从句的主从复合句中,如果主句的时态是一般将来时,那么从句要用一般现在时。例如:
    I will tell him about it when he comes.
    If it is fine tomorrow, we will go outing.
    如果主句的时态是过去将来时,那么从句要用一般过去时。例如:
    He said that he would have another try if he had the chance.
    I knew he could help me if he was free the next day.
    主要标志有:if 、unless 、until、 when 、as soon as
考点名称:状语从句
  • 状语从句:
    指句子用作状语时,起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。
    根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比较等从句。
    状语从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导,也可以由词组引起。
    从句位于句首或句中时通常用逗号与主句隔开,位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。
  • 状语从句分类:
    1、时间状语从句
    常用引导词:
    when, as, while, as soon as, while, before, after, since , till, until
    特殊引导词:
    the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the day,the instant, immediately , directly, no sooner … than, hardly …when, scarcely … when
    I didn't realize how special my mother was until I became an adult.
    While John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.
    The children ran away from the orchard(果园) the moment they saw the guard.
    No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.
    Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble.

    2、地点状语从句
    常用引导词:
    where
    特殊引导词:
    wherever, anywhere, everywhere
    Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories.
    Wherever you go, you should work hard.

    3、原因状语从句
    常用引导词:
    because, since, as, for
    特殊引导词:
    seeing that, now that, in that, considering that, given that, considering that, as much as, so much as
    My friends dislike me because I'm handsome and successful.
    Now that everybody has come, let's begin our conference.
    The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more.
    Considering that he is no more than 12 years old, his height of 1.80 m is quite remarkable.

    4、目的状语从句
    常用引导词:
    so that, in order that
    特殊引导词:
    lest, in case, for fear that,in the hope that, for the purpose that, to the end that
    The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he could sign them.
    The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.

    5、结果状语从句
    常用引导词:
    so that, so… that, such … that,
    特殊引导词:
    such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that,
    He got up so early that he caught the first bus.
    It's such a good chance that we must not miss it.
    To such an degree was he excited that he couldn't sleep last night.

    6、条件状语从句
    常用引导词:
    if, unless,
    特殊引导词:
    as/so long as, only if, providing/provided that, suppose that, in case that, on condition that
    We'll start our project if the president agrees.
    You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying.
    Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.

    7、让步状语从句
    常用引导词:
    though, although, even if, even though
    特殊引导词:
    as(用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装),while ( 一般用在句首 ),no matter …, in spite of the fact that, while, whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever
    Much as I respect him, I can't agree to his proposal.
    尽管我很尊敬他, 我却不同意他的建议。
    The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough.
    No matter how hard he tried, she could not change her mind.
    He won't listen whatever you may say.

    8、比较状语从句
    常用引导词:
    as(同级比较), than(不同程度的比较)
    特殊引导词:
    the more … the more … ; just as …, so…; A is to B what /as X is to Y; no … more than; not A so much as B
    She is as bad-tempered as her mother.
    The house is three times as big as ours.
    The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.
    Food is to men what oil is to machine. 食物之于人,犹如油之于机器。

    9、方式状语从句
    常用引导词:
    as, as if, how
    特殊引导词:
    the way
    When in Rome, do as the Roman do.
    She behaved as if she were the boss.
    Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.
  • 状语从句用法:
    时间状语从句
    (1) when引导的时间状语从句
    ①.when引导的时间状语从句,其动词既可以是延续性动作的动词,也可以是瞬间性动作的动词,而且可以表示主句的动作和从句的动作同时发生,或者从句的动作发生在主句的动作之前。如:
    when you apply for a job, you must present your credentials.
    当你申请工作时,你必须递交你的有关证件。(同时)
    when the students heard the teacher’s footsteps, they all atopped talking.
    当学生们听到老师的脚步声时,他们都停止了讲话。(从句动作发生在前)
    ② when还可表示just then(正在那时,突然)的意思,此时其所引导的从句只放在主句之后。如:
    we were about to start when it began to rain.
    我们正要动身,突然天下起雨来。
    The game had hardly/scarcely/barely begun when it started raining.
    比赛刚刚开始就下起雨来。
    (2) as引导的时间状语从句
    as引导的时间状语从句其动词的动作是延续性的,而且侧重表示主句和从句的动作并相发生:
    We were having breakfast as she was combing her hair.
    她梳头时我们在吃早饭。
    It will warm up a little bit on Sunday as the cold front passes.
    寒流一过,星期日就会有点暖意了。
    (3) while引导的时间状语从句
    while表示“在某一段时间里”或“在……期间”,其所引导的从句的动作是延续性的,并侧重表示和主句的动作同时发生。如:
    When the teacher paraphrased the text in English, the students listened attentively and took notes.
    当老师用英语解释课文时,学生们聚精会神地听并做着笔记。
    I can learn while I work.
    我可以边工作边学习。
    (4) before引导的时间状语从句
    ① before“在……之前”
    I have finished my dissertation before my supervisor went abroad.
    在我的导师出国之前,我已完成了我的学位论文。
    I’ll be back before you have left.
    你离开之前我就会回来。
    ② before“……之后才”
    It may be many years before we meet again.
    可能要过许多年我们才能再见了。
    It was three days before I came back.
    他三天后才回来。
    (5) as soon as/once/directly/the instant等引导的时间状语从句
    as soon as 是最常见的表示“一……就”的从属连词,其他连词还有once,directly,immediately,instantly,the instant (that),the minute(that) ,the moment(that)等,它们通常都可与as soon as换用。如:
    As soon as we got home, the telephone rang.
    我们一到家,电话就响了。
    I recognized her immediately I saw her.
    我一看见她就认出她来了。
    Directly the teacher came in everyone was quiet.
    老师一进来,大家就静了下来。
    (6) hardly...when/no sooner...than引导的时间状语从句
    关联从属连词hardly/barely/scarcely...when和no sooner...than的意思是“刚……就”,它们所引导的从句中的谓语动词通常为过去完成时。如:
    He had no sooner (no sooner had he)arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey.
    他刚一到家,就又要他出另一次差。
    No sooner had the words been spoken than he realized that he should have remained silent.
    这些话刚一出口,他就意识到自己应该保持沉默。
    (7) since引导的时间状语从句
    在含有since引导的时间状语从句的复合句中,从句的谓语动词通常为一般过去时,主句的谓语动词通常为现在完成时、过去完成时和一般现在时:
    We’ve never met since we graduated from the college.
    大学毕业后我们就再没见过面。
    Great changes have taken place since you left.
    你走了以后,这里发生了巨大变化。
    (8) till/until引导的时间状语从句 till和until同义,作“直到……时(为止)”解,till多用于非正式文体,until多用于句首。如:
    Donald will remain in college until(till) he finishes his Ph.D course.
    唐纳德将留在学校直到完成他的博士学位课程。
    I won’t go with you until(till) I finished my homework.
    等我做完作业我才和你一起去。
    (9) whenever/each time/every time引导的时间状语从句
    whenever在引导时间状语从句时作“每当;每次”解,each time和every time与whenever同义,通常可以与它换用。如:
    The roof leaks whenever it rains.
    每逢下雨屋顶就漏雨。
    Whenever certain chemicals are mixed together,heat is produced.
    某些化学物质被混到一起时,就会产生热。
    Whenever/ Every time/ Each time I met her, she was studying.
    我每次看见她时,她总是在学习。

    状语从句 - 地点状语从句
    (1) when引导的时间状语从句
    从属连词where“在(或到)……的地方”
    Where there is a will, there is a way.
    有志者事竟成。
    Put it where you found it.
    把它放在原来的地方。
    ① where 在地点状语从句中,除指地点外,还可指处境等。如:
    He said he was happy where he was.
    他说他对自己的处境很满意。
    It’s your fault that she is where she is.
    她今天落到这个地步都怪你。
    ② 有时地点状语从句中的某些词可以省略。如:
    Fill in the blanks with the given phrases. Change the form where necessary.
    用所给的短语填空,必要的地方可以改变其形式。
    Avoid structure of this kind where possible.
    只要可能,就要避免这种结构。
    (2) wherever引导的地点状语从句
    从属连词wherever“在(或到)……的各个地方”:
    You can go wherever(anywhere) you like these days.
    这些天你可以去你想去的地方。
    Where (Everywhere) they went, the experts were warmly welcomed.
    专家每到一处, 都受到热烈的欢迎。
    Sit down wherever you like.
    你喜欢坐哪儿就坐哪儿。

    状语从句 - 原因状语从句
     (1) because引导的原因状语从句
    because表示人们不知道的直接的原因或理由,着重点在从句,其所引导的从句,为全句句意的中心所在。
    通常用于回答why引出的疑问句,语气最强,除特别强调外,该从句一般位于主句后面。
    I didn’t go abrord with her because I couldn’t afford it.
    我没有和她一起出国是因为费用太高。
    Don’t scamp your work because you are pressed for time.
    不要因为时间仓促而马马虎虎。
    (2) as引导的原因状语从句
    as引导的原因状语从句所传递的通常是已知信息,从句多位于主句之前,通常可以和since换用。如:
    As I didn’t know the way,I asked a policeman.
    我不认识路,因而问警察。
    As it is snowing, we shall not climb the mountain.
    由于在下雪,我们不去爬山了。
    (3) since引导的原因状语从句
    since引导的原因状语从句所传递的通常是已知信息,从句多位于主句之前,通常可以和as换用。如:
    Since traveling by air is much faster,they decided to take a plane.
    既然乘飞机旅行快得多,他们就决定坐飞机。
    Since you won’t help me ,I’ll ask someone else.
    你既然不帮我,那我就请别人帮忙。
    (4) now(that)引导的原因状语从句
    now(that)“因为;既然”,通常可以和since换用。其中that可省去,用来表示一种新的情况,再加以推论。如:
    Now(that) you?蒺ve passed your test you can drive on your own.
    你既已考试合格,就可以独自开车了。
    I do remember,now (that) you mention it.
    你这一提,我倒的确想起来了。
    (5) seeing (that)引导的原因状语从句
    Seeing (that)“鉴于;由于”,通常用于非正式文体。如:
    Seeing (that) the weather is bad,we’ll stay at home.
    天气不好,我们还是呆在家里吧。
    Seeing that he’ s ill,he’s unlikely to come.
    (6) in that引导的原因状语从句
    in that“因为;基于……的理由”,可以和because换用,多用于正式文体,它所引导的原因状语从句总是位于主句之后。如:
    Advertisement is distinguished from other forms of communication in that the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered.
    广告不同于其他交际形式,因为登广告的人要为其所提供的信息付费。
    I’m in a slightly awkward position, in that he’s not arriving until 10th.
    我的处境有点难堪,因为他要十号才来。

    状语从句 - 目的状语从句
     (1) in order that引导的目的状语从句
    in order that“为了;以便”。多用于正式文体,通常可以与so that换用。如:
    You stopped at Hangzhou in order that they could go around West Lake.
    他们在杭州停了下来,以便游览西湖。
    The expert spoke slowly in order that everyone should understand.
    专家讲得很慢,以便人人听得懂。
    (2) so (that)引导的目的状语从句
    so that“为了;以便”。so that通常可以与in order that换用,它所引导的目的状语从句总是放在主句之后,在非正式文体中,常省略that。如:
    Speak clearly so that they may understand you.
    你要讲得清楚,他们才听得懂。
    She wanted tea ready at seven so she could be out by eight.
    她要七点钟备好茶点,这样她八点以前就可以出门了。
    (3) in case/for fear (that)/lest等引导的目的状语从句
    in case,for fear(that)和lest这三个从属连词都表示否定目的,意思是“以免”,“以防”。
    in case多用于英国英语,它所引导的从句中的谓语动词可以是陈述语气形式,也可以是虚拟语气形式;
    for fear(that)引导的从句中的谓语带有may,might,should等情态动词;
    lest用于正式文体,它所引导的从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气形式。如:
    Take your umbrella with you,lest it should rain.
    带上你的伞,以防下雨。
    Take your umbrella in case it rains.
    带上你的伞,以防下雨。
    He took an umbrella with him for fear that it might rain.
    他带了一把伞,以防下雨。
    状语从句 - 结果状语从句
    (1) so that引导的结果状语从句
    ① so that引导的结果状语从句只能位于主句之后,中间可以有逗号。如:
    Suddenly it began to rain heavily,so that it was almost impossible to carry on driving.
    突然下起了大雨,几乎无法继续开车。
    Linda phoned me in on arrival so that I know she was safe and sound.
    琳达到达后给我打了电话,因而我知道她平安无事。
    ②“so that”既可引导结果状语从句也可引导目的状语从句。
    究竟是引导的结果状语从句还是目的状语从句,除了根据句意来判断外,还可根据结构形式来加以判断。
    若从句前有逗号,一般为结果状语从句,如果从句中有情态动词,通常则为目的状语从句。如:
    They started out early, so that they didn’t miss the train.
    他们早早就出发了,所以没误火车。(结果状语从句)
    They started out early so that they would not miss the train.
    他们早早出发是为了不误火车。(目的状语从句)
    (2) so...that引导的结果状语从句
    so...that“如此……以致”,that在非正式文体中可以省略,so后面接形容词或副词。如:
    She spoke so fast that nobody could catch what she was saying.
    她说话如此之快竟没有人听出来她在讲什么。
    There is so little time left that I have to tell you about it latter.
    现在剩下的时间不多了,我只好以后再给你讲这件事。
    (3) such...that引导的结果状语从句
    引导结果状语从句的such...that的具体内容是:such+a/an+形容词+名词+that从句。
    其中的名词可以是可数名词的单数或复数,也可以是不可数名词。
    such+a/an+形容词+单数名词+that从句可换成so+形容词+a/an+单数名词+that从句。如:
    The Japanese student made such rapid progress that he soon began to write article in Chinese.
    那个日本留学生进步很快,不久就开始用中文写文章了。
    The professor told us such a funny story that all the students laughed.
    (=The professor told us so funny a story that all the students laughed.)
    教授讲了个很有趣的故事,(以致于)所有的学生都笑了起来。
    (4) such that引导的结果状语从句
    such that引导的结果状语从句多用于正式文体,主句为“主—系—表”句型。如:
    The force of the explosion was such that it blew out all the windows.
    爆炸的力量很大,所有的窗户都被炸掉了。
    His anger was such that he lost control of himself.
    他气得不能克制自己的感情。

    状语从句 - 条件状语从句 
    (1) if引导的条件状语从句
    if可引导非真实条件状语从句(见“虚拟语气”)和真实条件状语从句。如:
    If he said that,he can’t be telling the truth.
    如果他说了那样的话,他不可能是说实话。
    (2) unless引导的条件状语从句
    unless引导的是否定条件状语从句,在意义上相当于if...not,而且语气较强,一般不用于虚拟语气。如:
    You’ll be late unless you hurry.
    你会迟到的,如果不赶快的话。
    (3) if only引导的条件状语从句
    if only在引导条件状语从句时意为“只要;如果”。如:
    I’ll let you use the car if only you keep it in good condition.
    只要你把车保养好,我就让你用。
    (4) as/so long as引导的条件状语从句
    as/so long as意为“只要;如果”。如:
    As long as it doesn’t rain, we can play.
    只要不下雨我们就能玩。
    (5) provided (that)/providing (that)引导的条件状语从句
    provided (that)/providing (that)意为“如果;只要”。如:
    I will agree to go provided’ providing (that my expense are paid.)
    假如为我负担费用,我就同意去。
    Providing you promise not to tell anyone else I’ll explain the secret.
    状语从句 - 让步状语从句
    (1) although/though引导的让步状语从句
    although和though,都作“虽然;尽管”解,通常可以换用,although的语气较重。
    如果要强调“但是”语气,可使用yet,still或nevertheless来表示“但是”、“依然”或“然而”之意。
    Although they have been talking for a long time, he cannot make her believe him.
    虽然和她谈了半天,他还是不能让她信任自己。
    (2) even if引导的让步状语从句
    even if “即使,纵然”,从句表示的是尚未发生的动作或存在的情况。如:
    Even if it rains tomorrow,we won’t change our plan.
    即使明天下雨,我们也决不改变计划。
    Even if I failed again, I will not give up the experiment.
    即使我再次失败,我也决不会放弃实验。
    (3) even though引导的让步状语从句
    even though“虽然,尽管”,从句所表示的是已经发生的动作或存在的情况,通常可以和although/though换用。如:
    Even though I didn’t understand a word,I kept smiling.
    即使我一个字也不懂,我还是保持微笑。
    Even though you say so,I do not believe it.
    即使你这样说,我也不信。
    (4) much as引导的让步状语从句
    much as“虽然,尽管”,通常可以和although/though换用:
    Much as I’d like to,I can’t come.
    我虽然很想来,但是来不了。
    Much as I admire his courage,I don’t think he acted wisely.
    我虽然佩服他的勇气,但我认为他这样做是不聪明的。
    (5) while引导的让步状语从句
    while“虽然,尽管”,多用于正式文体,通常可换作although/though。如:
    While I understand your point of view,I do not share it.
    我虽了解你的观点,但不敢苟同。
    While I sympathize,I really can’t do very much to help.
    虽然我很同情,但我确实帮不了什么忙。
    (6) whatever/No matter what引导的让步状语从句
    whatever和no matter what用法相同,都作“无论什么”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:
    Whatever/No matter what he says,don’t go.
    不管他说什么,你都不要走。
    We are determined to fulfill the task,whatever/no matter what happens.
    不管发生什么了,我们决心完成任务。
    (7) whichever/no matter which引导的让步状语从句
    whichever和no matter which用法相同,都作“无论哪个”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:
    Whichever/No matter which you buy, there is a six-month guarantee.
    不论你买哪个,都有六个月的保修期。
    Whichever/No matter which of the two men had stolen her purseBarbara was determined to find them.
    不管这两个人是谁偷了她的钱包,芭芭拉决心找到他们。
    (8) whoever/no matter who引导的让步状语从句
    whoever和no matter who用法相同,都作“无论谁”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:
    You can’t come in, whoever you are.
    不管你是谁,都不能进来。
    Whoever/No matter who wants to speak to me on the phone, tell him I’m busy.
    不管谁要我接电话, 就说我现在正忙着呢。
    (9) whereverno matter where引导的让步状语从句
    wherever和no matter where用法相同,都作“无论在(或到)哪里”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:
    Wherever/No matter where you go, I’m Right Here Waiting fo ryou.
    无论你到哪里,我都依然在这里等着你。
    (10) however/no matter how引导的让步状语从句
    however和no matter how用法相同,都作“无论如何……”解,后者多用于非正式文体。
    However much you regret doing that, there is nothing you can do about it now.
    无论你可能多么懊悔你曾经做过的事,现在也无济于事了。
    However high it may be,it can’t reach the sky.
    它不论有多高,也高不到天上去。
    (11) whenever/no matter when引导的让步状语从句
    whenever和no matter when用法相同,都作“无论何时”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:
    Whenever I’m unhappy,he cheers me up.
    每当我不高兴时,他就给我鼓劲儿。
    (12)(no matter) whether...or引导的让步状语从句
    whether...or和no matter whether...or用法相同,都作“不论……还是”解,后者的语气强一些。如:
    When It Rains or not, we’re playing football on Sunday.
    无论下不下雨,我们星期天一定踢足球。
    (13) as引导的让步状语从句
    as在引导让步状语从句时作“虽然;尽管”和“即使”解,但是它不位于句首,在它前面的可以是形容词、名词、副词等。如:
    Strong as you maybe, you cannot lift it.
    虽然你可能很有力气,你却无法把它提起来。
    Late as it was, they continued to study.
    时间尽管不早了,他们仍继续学习。

    状语从句 - 方式状语从句
    (1) as引导的方式状语从句
    as在引导方式状语从句时意为“以……方式;如同……那样”,从句有时是省略句。如:
    Do as I say. 要照我说的做。
    I did just as you told me. 我正是照你说的办的。
    Air is to man as water is to fish. 空气之于人犹如水之于鱼。
    (2) as if/as though引导的方式状语从句
    as if和as though的用法相同,都作“好像,仿佛”解。如:
    二者引导的状语从句往往用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反。as if比as though更为常用。
    但也可用陈述语气,表示所说的情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。如:
    They looked at me as if ‘as though I were mad.
    他们瞧着我好像我发疯了似的。
    They look as if/as though they know each other.
    他们看来好像互相认识。

    状语从句 - 比较状语从句
    (1) as...as 引导的比较状语从句
    as...as表示同级比较,主句中用形容词或副词的原级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:
    We were as fortunate as them (they were)
    我们和他们一样幸运。
    I hope she will make as much progress as you (have done).
    我希望她将取得和你同样的进步。
    (2) not so/as...as 引导的比较状语从句
    not so/as...as表示同级比较,主句中用形容词或副词的原级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:
    That’s not so/as simple as it sounds.
    那件事情不像听起来那么简单。
    (3) than引导的比较状语从句
    than引导的比较状语从句表示同等比较,主句中用形容词或副词的比较级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:
    He has lived here longer than I(has lived).
    他在这儿住的时间比我长。
    They love the girl than(they love) him.
    他们爱这个女孩而不爱他。
    (4) the..., the...引导的比较状语从句
    The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes.
    英语听得越多就越容易。

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