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  3. 九年级英语
  4. 一般现在时副词被动语态

Light bulb which was invented by Edison _________now.[ ]A. was widely used B. is widely usedC. will

一、题文

Light bulb which was invented by Edison _________now.       
[     ]
A. was widely used          
B. is widely used
C. will be widely used        
D. used widely

考点提示:一般现在时,副词,被动语态

二、答案

B

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《Light bulb which was invented by Edison _________now.[ ]A. was widely used B. is widely usedC. will》这道题主要考你对 一般现在时副词被动语态 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:一般现在时,副词,被动语态

考点名称:一般现在时
  • 一般现在时:
    :表示通常性、规律性、习惯性的状态或者动作(有时间规律发生的事件)的一种时间状态。
  • 一般现在时的具体用法:
    1. 表示经常的或习惯性的动作,常与表示频率的时间状语连用。    
    e.g.  I leave home for school at 7:00 every morning. 
    2. 表示客观事实和普遍真理。    
    e.g.  The earth moves around the sun.
    3. 表示现在发生的具体动作或存在的状态 
    e.g. He lives in Beijing now.
    4. 习惯性的爱好或行为
    e.g. I like dancing while she likes singing.
    5. 表示预先计划或安排好的行为。 
    e.g.  Our class begins at 7:45.
    6. 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替将来时。 
    e.g.  If you come, we will wait for you.
    7. 表示格言或警句中。 
    e.g.  Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 
    8.表示主语具备的性格、能力、特征和状态。 
    e.g. I don't want so much. 
    Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.
    比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. 
      I am doing my homework now.
    9.在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替将来时。 
    10.小说故事用一般现在时代替一般过去时。新闻报道类的内容,为了体现其“新鲜”性,也用一般现在时来表示过去发生的事情。 
    11.有些表示状态和感觉的动词表示现在发生的具体行为时,只用一般现在时,而不用进行时态。 
    注意★:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 
    例:Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me,I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。
  • 一般现在时与现在进行时的区别:
    一、两种时态的主要含义:
    一般现在时
    1.表示事物的本质特性或客观存在,没有时限性。
    The table ____ soft。(feels) 表特性特征。
    Japan ___ in the east of China。 (lives) 表客观事实
    2.现阶段经常性、习惯性的行为,可带频率时间。
    The shop closes at 7:30 p.m.
    Father doesn’t smoke. (习惯)
    3.表说话时的状态,感觉或结果,一般用状态动词,如:
    It doesn’t matter. Does it hurt? (感觉结果)
    4.特殊用法:
    -在条件、时间、让步从句中用现在时代替将来。
    -If you go there,I’ll help you.
    —用在begin,come,go,leave,return,open,close 等短暂谓语动词表规定计划。
    The plane takes off at 11:30. (不受主观支配的计划)
    -在剧本、解说、标题或there(here)开头的句中表进行
    There goes the bell/Here comes Mr.Wang.
    I declare the meeting opens.(正在宣布)
    He meets the ball and hits back to No.2 (正在发生)

    现在进行时
    1.说话时正在发生,进行的动作
    Look! Dark clouds are gathering . (正在发生)
    2.表现阶段正在进行,但此刻不一定正在进行的事。
    He usually gets up at 6:00,but this week he is getting up at 7:00.
    (现阶段正在进行,但说话时不一定在起床)
    3.现在进行时的特殊意义
    -表示主观打算常用于 go,come,leave,start,begin 等,位移、趋向动词。
    How long are you staying here (准备停留)
    -表示眼前刚过去的语意即“话音刚落”,适用于tell,say,talk,discuss
    You don’t believe it You know I’m telling the truth.
    -表示安慰、关心、喜欢、讨厌等感情色彩。
    He is always making noises in class. (讨厌)
    -在条件、时间、让步状语从句中表示将来正在进行。
    Don’t bother him if he is reading this time tomorrow.

    二、严格区分进行时与一般时的语义
    1. 持续动词的一般时表持续情况,经常性,习惯性行为或客观存在的事实,进行时表暂时性或有限时刻的持续。
    2.短暂动词的一般时叙述事实,特征,能力而短暂动作进行时描述反复发生,即将发生或刚开始行为。
    3.短暂动词和静态动词一般时表示实际情况客观状态、结果、特征、特性,进行时表未完成含开始或渐进之意。
    The bus stops. (车停了-事实)
    The bus is stopping. (渐渐停下来)
    I love the job. (静态事实)
    I am loving the job. ( 渐渐爱上了)
    4.come,go,leave,start,return,move,reach,sail,fall 等一般时态表客观规定计划,进行时表主观打算推测。
    Flight 254 leaves at 5:30. (表主观打算)
    The plane is taking off an hour later.(主观判断)
    5.现在进行时带always,often,usually,sometimes,等频率副词表感情色彩,一般现在时则没有此用法。
  • 一般现在时的句子转换:
    (1)当句子中有be动词或情态动词时,则把be动词或情态动词(can,could等等)提到主语的前面变成疑问句;在be动词或情态动词后面加not变成否定句.
    例:
    ①陈述句:She is a student.
    疑问句→ Is she a student?
    否定句→ She is not a student.
    ②陈述句:I can swim.
    疑问句→ Can you swim
    否定句→ I can not swim.

    (2)当句子中即没有be动词,也没有情态动词时,则在主语前加助动词do (you,以及复数),does(单数she,he,it)变成问句;
    在主语后谓语动词前加助动词don’t(I,you,以及复数), doesn’t(单数she,he,it)变成否定句,助动词后的动词要变成动词原形。
    例:
    ①陈述句:We get up at 7:00 every morning.
    疑问句→Do you get up at 7:00 every morning?
    否定句→We don’t get up at 7:00 every morning.
    ②陈述句:She has a little brother.
    疑问句→ Does she have a little brother?
    否定句→ She doesn’t have a little brother.

    一般现在时的表达方法:
    主要通过谓语动词的变化和用时间词语来表示,其中最主要的是谓语动词的变化。现在一般时动词变化的规则是:
    1.如果主语是名词复数和第一人称I、 we ,谓语动词不用做任何变化,即仍然用动词原形表示:
    We usually go to school at 7:30. 我们通常7:30上学去。[go]
    My parents give ten yuan to my sister every week.我父母每星期给我妹妹十元钱。[give]

    2.主语是任何一个单数名词或者是第三人称单数,谓语动词要进行必要的变化。特别提一点:不可数名词也算作单数处理。

    3.谓语动词的变化规律是:
    第三人称单数的构成见下表:

    <?xml:namespace prefix = "o" ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

    构成

    举例

    一般情况

    词尾+s

    动词原形

    第三人称单数

    work(工作)
    stop(
    停止)

    works
    stops

    -ch, -sh, s, x, o结尾

    词尾+es

    teach()
    wash(
    )
    dress(
    装扮)
    fix(
    安装)
    go(
    )

    teaches
    washes
    dresses
    fixes
    goes

    辅音字母+y”结尾

    yi,再加es

    fly(飞翔)
    try(
    尝试)

    flies
    tries

    特殊变化的词:
    be (是) - am,is,are
    I am
    she/he/it,名词单数都用 is
    we,you,they,名词复数都用are
    have (有) - have,has
    I,we,you,they,名词复数都用have
    she/he/it is,名词单数都用 has

    助动词,不论单复数、不论什么人称都没有变化,都用 can,may,must,need,ought to 等。
    而且,句子中有了助动词,谓语动词就不需要有任何变化了,即用动词原形表示。例:
    We have six classes every day. 我们每天上六节课。
    I often get up at 6:30. 我经常6:30起床。
    Jack likes Chinese food very much.杰克很喜欢中国饮食。
    We can see some pictures on the wall. 我们能看到墙上的画。

    4.一般现在时常用的时间词语
    常用于一般现在时的词语有 sometimes/usually/often/every day(week,year)/ now/always 等。
    这些时间词语只是辅助作用,这些词语也可用于其它的时态,所以谓语动词变化才是最关键的。
    注意:当表现强烈的感情色彩时,尽管有如 always/never/seldom 等频率副词,但一般在频率副词前加上be动词,后面变为动词的现在分词形式。
    例:My father lose his key again. He is always losing his key.

  • 一般现在时的基本结构:


    一般现在时中当主语为第三人称单数的时,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式。

考点名称:副词
  • 副词:
    是一种用来修饰动词、形容词、全句的词,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念的词。副词是一种半虚半实的词。
    副词可分为:地点副词、方式副词、程度副词、疑问副词和连接副词。
    副词连用顺序:程度副词+方式副词+地点副词+时间副词。
  • 副词分类:
    1、时间副词有三类:always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词
    1)表示发生时间的副词:
    It’s beginning to rain now!  现在开始下雨了!
    2)表示频繁程度的副词,也称频度副词always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词:
    She often changes her mind.  她常改变主意。
    3)还有一些其他表示时间的副词:
     He has just had an operation. 他刚动过手术。
    2、地点副词:
    1)有不少表示地点的副词:
    She is studying abroad.  她在国外留学。
    2)还有一些部分与介词同形的副词。它们与介词同形,跟宾语的是介词,否则是副词:
    ①用作介词:Stand up!  起立!
    ②用作副词:A cat climbed up the tree.  猫爬上了树。
    3)以where 构成的副词也是地点副词: 
    It’s the same everywhere.  到处都一样。
    3、方式副词:
    carefully, properly(适当地), anxiously(焦虑地), suddenly, normally(正常地), fast, well, calmly(冷静地), politely(有礼貌地), proudly(自豪地), softly, warmly ,slowly
    4、程度副词:
    much,little, very,rather(相当),so,too,still, quite, perfectly(完美地), enough, extremely(非常), entirely(整个),almost, slightly(细小地), hardly.
    5、疑问副词:
    how, when, where, why.
    6、关系副词:
    when, where, why.等。
    7、 连接副词:
    therefore(因此),moreover(此外),however,otherwise(另外的),then,when ,where,how,why等。

    副词的语法作用:
    副词在句中可作状语,表语,补语,定语。
    He works hard. (作状语)
    他工作努力。
    You speak English very well. (作状语)
    你英语讲的相当好。
    Is she in ? (作表语)
    她在家吗?
    Let's be out. (作表语)
    让我们出去吧。
    Food here is hardly to get. (here作定语,hardly作状语)
    这儿很难弄到食物。
    Let him out!(作补语)
    让他出去!
    修饰名词的副词放在被修饰词之后
    a. The villagers there are busy getting in wheat.

  • 不同类型副词的用法比较:
    方式副词:
    1)英语中有大量方式副词,说明行为方式(回答how的问题):
    How beautifully your wife dances.  你夫人舞跳的真美。
    2)还有相当多的副词,表示某些情绪:
    She smiled gratefully.  她感激的笑了笑。
    3)还有一些以-ly结尾的副词,表示动作发生的状况:
    He left the town secretly. 他悄然离开了这座城市。

    程度副词和强调副词 :
    1)程度副词可修饰动词,表示“到某种程度”:   Is she badly hurt?  她伤得重吗?
      [说明] 这类副词除修饰动词外,还可修饰形容词(a)或另一副词(b):
    a. fairly simple 相当简单      quite correct 完全正确
    b. wonderfully well 好极了    do it very quickly 干得很快
    2)much 是一个特殊的程度副词,它可以:
    a. 修饰形容词等:
    I’m not much good at singing. 我唱歌不太好。
     b. 修饰比较级:
    You sing much better than me. 你比我唱的好多了。
    Their house is much nicer than ours. 他们的房子比我们的好多了。

    疑问副词和连接副词:
    1)疑问副词:疑问副词用来引导特殊问句:
    how: How is your grandmother? 你奶奶身体好吗?
    where: Where does she come from? 她是哪儿人?
    when: When can you come? 你什么时候能来?
    why: Why was he so late? 他为什么来得这么晚?
    2)连接副词:连接副词意思和词形都和疑问副词一样,但都引导从句或与不定式连用:
    how: Do you know how to start this machine? 你知道这台机器怎样启动吗?
    where: I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住在哪儿。(引导宾语从句)
    when: Tell me when you’ll be ready. 告诉我你什么时候准备好。(引导宾语从句)
    why: That’s why I came round. 这就是我来的原因。(引导表语从句)

    一些其它类型的副词,如表示方向的副词:
    Let’s go inside. 咱们到里面去。
    Take two steps forward. 向前走两步。

  • 副词的位置:
    1、实义动词前,be动词、情态动词之后。
    I am also Bush.
    I can also do that.
    I also want to play that games.
    I get up early in the morning everyday. 我每天早早起床。
    He gave me a gift yesterday. 他昨天给了我一件礼物。
    She didn't drink water enough. 她喝的水不够。
    The train goes fast. 火车跑得快。
    We can go to this school freely. 我们可以免费到这家学校学习。
    They left a life hardly then. 当时他们的生活很艰难。
    He has a new hat on today. 他今天戴了一顶新帽子。
    I have seen this film twice with my friends. 这部电影我和朋友看过两次。

    2、副词修饰形容词,副词时,副词在前面,而被修饰的词在后面。
    It's rather easy, I can do it. 这很容易,我能做到。
    He did it quite well. 他做得相当好。
    It's rather difficult to tell who is right.很难说谁是对的。
    It's so important that I must tell my friends. 这件事太重要了,我得告诉我的朋友。
    It's much better. 好多了。

    3、频度副词可放在实义动词的前面,情态动词和助动词的后面。
    I often help him these days. 这些日子我经常帮助他。
    I always remember the day when I first came to this school.
    我常常记得我第一次来学校的那一天。
    You mustn't always help me. 你不能老是帮助我。
    He seldom comes to see us. 他很少来看我们。
    We usually go shopping once a week. 我们通常一周买一次东西。
    The new students don't always go to dance. 新学生并不时常去跳舞。

    4、疑问副词,连接副词,关系副词以及修饰整个句子的副词,通常放在句子或从句的前面。
    When do you study everyday? 你每天什么时间学习?
    Can you tell me how you did it? 你能告诉我你如何做的吗?
    First, let me ask you some questions. 先让我来问几个问题。
    How much does this bike cost? 这辆车子多少钱?
    Either you go or he comes. 不是你去就是他来。
    The students were reading when the teacher came into the classroom. 当老师进教室时,学生们正在读书。

    5、时间副词和地点副词在一个句中, 地点副词在前面时间副词在后面。
    We went shopping in the supermarket at 9 o'clock yesterday.
    昨天九点钟我们到超市买东西了.
    What were you doing in the classroom yesterday afternoon?
    昨天下午你在教室里干什么?
    The accident took place in the Eleven Avenue one hour ago.
    一小时前十一号大街发生了一场事故。

    6、否定副词在句首,句子要倒装,如:
    Never have I felt so excited!
  • 兼有两种形式的副词:
    1) close与closely
    close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"
    He is sitting close to me.
    Watch him closely.

    2) late 与lately
    late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"
    You have come too late.
    What have you been doing lately?

    3) deep与deeply
    deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"
    He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
    Even father was deeply moved by the film.

    4) high与highly
    high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
    The plane was flying high.
    I think highly of your opinion.

    5) wide与widely
    wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"
    He opened the door wide.
    English is widely used in the world.

    6) free与freely
    free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"
    You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
    You may speak freely; say what you like.
    副词有加a或ly的 区别在于通常加a 的副词描述一种状态,而加ly 的副词则倾向于感觉。
考点名称:被动语态
  • 语态:
    是动词的一种形式,它表示主语和谓语的关系。
    语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
    如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态;
    如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态。
  • 被动语态的构成:
    被动语态的基本结构:
    主语+be +过去分词(+by+动作的发出者)
    ① 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词
    如:Trees are planted every year.
    ② 现在进行时 am/is/are+ being +过去分词
    如:The road is being repaired. 
    ③ 现在完成时 have/has + been +过去分词
    如:The work has been finished.
    ④ 一般过去时 was/were + 过去分词
    如:The story was told by him.
    Many birds were killed last year.
    ⑤过去进行时 was/were+ being + 过去分词
    如: The new house was being painted when I got home.
    ⑥过去完成时 had +been+ 过去分词
    如: He told me that the work had been finished.
    ⑦一般将来时  will +be + 过去分词
    如:The problem will be discussed tomorrow.
    ⑧ 过去将来时 would/should +be +过去分词
    如: He said that the Christmas tree would be put up soon.
    ⑨情态动词的被动语态
    情态动词+ be +过去分词    
    如:The problem must be solved soon.
    Children should be taught to love animals.
  • 被动语态使用注意:
    1. 不及物动词无被动语态。 如:happen, break down, come out......
    What will happen in 100 years.
    The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
    2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: write, sell, ride.....
    This pen writes well.
    This new book sells well.
    3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。
    例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
    see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
    A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
    The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
    4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。
    He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
    He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
    My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
    5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。
    We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.
    He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
    The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.
    构成be+done.
  • 主动句变为被动句所遵循的4个步骤:
    ①把原主动句中的宾语变为被动句的主语
    ②把动词变为被动形式即be +过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持不变。
    ③原主动句的主语如需要则放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现(注代词的宾格),如不需要则可省略。
    ④其它的成分(定语、状语)不变。

    不用于被动语态的情形:
    ①不及物动词没有被动语态
    这类动词有take place, happen, come about, break out, appear, disappear, last,  arise等。
    例如:A fire broke out during the night.
    ②某些静态动词不用于被动语态
    这类动词有have, lack, fit, hold, suit, resemble等。 
    例如:My shoes do not fit me.
    ③宾语为相互代词和反身代词时不用于被动语态
    例如:We should help each other.

    关于主动形式表示被动意义:
    ①系动词(如look, sound, smell, feel, taste, prove等)要用主动表被动,因为系动词为不及物动词,它们没有被动语态形式。
    例如:The building looks very beautiful.
    ②当open, close, shut, lock, move, read, wash, clean, cook, cut, wear, carry 等用作不及物动词且表示主语的某种属性时,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book sells well.
    ③有的动词本身含有被动意味,通常用主动形式来表示被动含义。
    例如:Her eyes filled with tears.
    ④不定式to blame, to let用作表语时,通常要用主动表被动。
    例如:Who is to blame?
    ⑤某些“be+形容词+to do”结构中的不定式通常要用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book is difficult to understand.
    ⑥不定式用于某些动词(如have, have got, get, want, need等)的宾语后作定语时,如果不定式的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:Do you have time to help us?
    ⑦在too...to do sth.和...enough to do sth. 这两个结构中,若主语与其后不定式为to do sth.被动关系,则该不定式通常用主动形式表示被动意义(有时也可直接用 被动式)。
    例如:The writing is too faint to read.
    ⑧be worth后的动名词要用主动表被动。
    例如:This movie is worth seeing.
    ⑨在need, want, require等少数表示“需要”的动词后的动名词用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The house needs cleaning.

    表示“据说”的三类被动句型:
    ①It is said that...句式
    例如:It is said that thirteen is an unlucky number.
    ②There is said that...句式 
    例如:There is said to be plenty of oil off our coast.
    ③sb./sth.is said that...句式
    例如:Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cancer.
  • 被动语态各时态构成 :

    时态

    被动语态 

    一般现在时

    am/is/are+过去分词

    一般过去时

    was/were+过去分词

    现在进行时

    am/is/are being+过去分词

    过去进行时

    was/were being+过去分词

    一般将来时

    will be+过去分词

    过去将来时

    would be+过去分词

    现在完成时

    have/has been+过去分词

    过去完成时

    had been+过去分词

    情态动词

    情态动词be+过去分词

  • 情态动词的被动语态:
    一、理解含情态动词的被动语态的概念含情态动词的被动语态说明某个被动性动作所反映出的感情和态度。
    初中阶段可用于被动语态的情态动词有“can、may、must、need、should”等,
    分别表示“能够被……”,“可以被……”,“必须被……”,“需要被……“,应该被……”等。

    二、掌握含情态动词的被动语态的不同句式的变换方法含情态动词的被动语态的疑问句、否定句的变化均借助于情态动词完成。
    (一)一般疑问句直接将陈述句被动语态中的情态动词提前。如:
    Mustthisworkbedoneatonce?这项工作必须立即完成吗?
    Shouldyourhomeworkbefinishedbeforesix?你的家庭作业应在六点前完成吗?
    (二)特殊疑问句由疑问词加上一般疑问句被动语态构成。如:
    Whenmustthisworkbedone?这工作必须在什么时候完成?
    Wherecanthelostbookbefound?这本失踪的书能在什么地方被找到?
    (三)反意疑问句借助情态动词构成附加疑问部分。如:
    Thisbridgecanbebuiltnextyear,can'tit?这座桥明年能建成,是吗?
    Thisbookshouldn'tbetakenoutofthelibrary,shouldit?这本书不应被带出图书馆,是吗?
    (四)否定句在情态动词后面加上“not”或“never”即可,但“must”表“必要”时否定式为“needn't”。如:
    Thisworkneedn'tbedoneatonce.这项工作没必要立即做。Thisdustbinshouldn'tbeputhere.这个垃圾箱不应放在这儿。

    三、含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答应保留原情态动词,
    但“must”表“必须”时,其否定回答应用“needn't”、“need”表“必要”时,其肯定回答应用“must”。如:
    —Shouldmyexercisesbefinishedtoday?我的作业应在今天完成吗?
    —Yes,theyshould.是的,应在今天完成。(No,theyshouldn't.不,不应在今天完成。)
    —Musthisexercisebookbehandedinatonce?他的练习本必须立即上交吗?
    —Yes,itmust.是的,必须立即上交。(No,itneedn't.不,不必立即上交。)
    —Needhebeoperatedonatonce?他必须立即手术吗?
    —Yes,hemust.是的,他必须。(No,heneedn't.不,他不必。)

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