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Wehavetworooms ,butIcan'tdecide .[ ]A.tolive,tochoosewhichoneB.lived;choosewhichone C.tolivein;

一、题文

We have two rooms               , but I can't decide               .                    
[     ]
A. to live, to choose which one        
B. lived; choose which one                  
C. to live in; which one to choose     
D. live; which one

考点提示:不定式,宾语从句

二、答案

C

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《Wehavetworooms ,butIcan'tdecide .[ ]A.tolive,tochoosewhichoneB.lived;choosewhichone C.tolivein;》这道题主要考你对 不定式宾语从句 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:不定式,宾语从句

考点名称:不定式
  • 动词不定式:
    指由to加上动词原形(而且只能是动词原形)所构成的一种非限定性动词,但在有些情况下to可以省略。
    动词不定式在语法功能上可作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、表语、定语和状语。
  • 动词不定式可以作以上各种成分,但它毕竟是动词,所以有动词的属性。
    动词不定式及其短语还可以有自己的宾语、状语,虽然动词不定式在语法上没有表面上的直接主语,但它表达的意义是动作,这一动作一定由使动者发出。
    这一使动者我们称之为逻辑主语,其形式如下:
    时态主动形式 被动形式 
    一般式(not) to do(not) to be done
    完成式(not) to have done(not) to have been done
    进行式(not) to be doing 
    完成进行式(not) to have been doing 
  • 不定式的用法:
    1、不定式作主语
    例如:To remember this is very important.
    注意:为了避免头重脚轻,在许多情况下,通常都将作主语的不定式置于句子后部,而在句首主语位置使用形式主语it。
    例如:It is very important to remember this.
    2、不定式作表语
    例如:He seems to be ill.
    注意:不定式作表语主要有三种情况,一是用于seem, appear, prove等系动词之后的不 定式(尤其是to be),
    二是像My job is to sweep the floor. 这样的主语与表语“等价”的情形,
    三是表示想法、约定、义务、命令、可能性、命运等,如: 
    You are to come when I call.
    3、不定式作宾语
    例如:I can not afford to buy a car.
    注意:
    ①不定式不仅用作动词的宾语,还可用作个别介词(but, except)的宾语。
    例如:I had no choice but to wait.
    ②当作宾语的不定式后跟有宾语补足语时,通常要用形式宾语it代替不定式,并将真正的宾语不定式置于宾语补足语之后
    例如:I find it difficult to learn Japanese well.
    4、不定式作宾语补足语
    例如:Who taught you to drive?
    5、不定式作定语
    例如:I have a question to ask you.
    注意:有的名词(如way, chance, right等)后用作不定式可换成of doing sth.
    如:It is the best way to do (of doing) it.
    但是以下名词后接不定式作定语时通常不能换成of doing sth.
    attempt  courage  decision  effort  fortune  failure  invitation  wish
    6、不定式作状语
    例如:I went to France to learn French.
考点名称:宾语从句
  • 宾语从句:
    在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。
    宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句。
    宾语从句连接代词主要有:
    who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever 等。
  • 宾语从句的特点:
    1.宾语从句可以作及物动词、介词及形容词的宾语。
    2.宾语从句的语序一律用陈述句语序。
    3.连接词that引导宾语从句在句中无词义,不充当句子成份,多数情况下可以省略。
    4.whether 和 if 都可引导宾语从句,但 whether后可紧跟or not;whether从句可作介词的宾语。
    5.如果从句太长,可以用形式宾语it.

    宾语从句的时态:
    1.主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。
    例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.
    2.主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。
    例句:She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time.
    3.当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。
    例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.
    4. 如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。 

    宾语从句的语序:
    A. 宾语从句必须用陈述语序。   
    False: He is wondering when can he finish this difficult job.   
    Right: He is wondering when he can finish this difficult job.
    B. 有时候可以用it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语从句放在后面。    
    Bad: I thought that he could finish this job in just two hours impossible.   
    Good: I thought it impossible that he could finish this job in just two hours.  
    C. 带有宾语从句的复合句的否定形式一般是否定主句。
    Bad: I think he doesn’t like the English teacher.   
    Good: I don’t think he likes the English teacher. 
    D.  主句一般过去时态,从句也要用过去时态。
    False: He wanted to know why he is crying in the corner.   
    Right: He wanted to know why he was crying in the corner

    宾语从句的否定转移:
    主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,espect,fancy,guess等。
    并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致。
    I don’t think he will come to my party.而不能说成I think he won’t come to my party.
    我认为他不会来我的舞会.
    I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he?
    我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?
    如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词,其反义疑问句要用肯定形式。
    We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully,does he?
    我们发现他从来不仔细听老师讲课,是不是?

  • 宾语从句中引导词的用法比较
    在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:
    连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if
    代词:who, whose, what ,which
    副词:when ,where, how, why 等。

    (一)that引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that可以省略)
    1.可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:
    say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。
    例句:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.
    注意事项:当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。
    例句:I don’t think it is right for him to treat you like that.

    2.在以下情况中that不能省略
    a.当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。
    例句:He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.
    b.当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。
    例句:Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.
    c.当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。
    例句:I can’t tell him that his mother died.
    d.注:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。
    例句:I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.

    (二)由whether,if 引导的宾语从句
    1.由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是“是否”。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。
    一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。
    例句:I wonder whether(if) they will come to our party.

    2.只能用whether,不能用if引导的宾语从句
    a.在带to的不定式前
    例句:We decided whether to walk there.
    b.在介词的后面
    例句:I’m thinking of whether we should go to see the film.
    c.在动词后面的宾语从句时
    例句:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week
    d.直接与or not连用时
    例句:I can’t say whether or not thet can come on time.

    3.只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句
    a.if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”
    例句:The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.
    b.if引导否定概念的宾语从句时
    例句:He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday.
    c.引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时
    例句:He talks as if he has known all about it.

    if,whether在宾语从句中的区别
    a.if和whether在作“是否”解时,引导宾语从句常放在动词know,ask,care,wonder,find out等之后,介词后一般不用if
    b.少数动词,如:leave,put,discuss,doubt后的宾语从句常用whether. 
    c. whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以.
    d.在不定式前只能用whether.
    (如:I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。)
    e.避免歧异时,我们常用whether而不用if.

    (三)连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句
    这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。
    用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。
    1.英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。
    例句:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?
    2.英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。
    例句:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

  • 简化宾语从句常用六法:
    方法一:
    当主句谓语动词是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise等,
    且宾语从句的主语与主句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。
    例如:
    Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon.
    →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon.
    We decided that we would help him.
    →We decided to help him.

    方法二:当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等动词,
    且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:
    She has forgotten how she can open the window.
    →She has forgotten how to open the window.
    注:当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,
    且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:
    Could you tell me how I can get to the station?
    →Could you tell me how to get to the station?

    方法三:当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,
    如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”结构。例如:
    The headmaster ordered that we should start at once.
    → The headmaster ordered us to start at once.

    方法四:某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如:
    He insisted that he should go with us.
    →He insisted on going with us.
    The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born.
    →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.

    方法五:某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为“宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)”结构。例如:
    Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground.
    → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground.

    方法六:动词seem后的宾语从句,也可以用不定式(短语)来简化,但句型需要进行适当的变化。例如:
    It seemed that the boys were going to win.
    →The boys seemed to win.
    除上述方法外,还有一些特殊句式的转化。例如:
    I found that it was difficult to learn English well.
    →I found it difficult to learn English well.
    Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow.
    →Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow.
    They found that the box was very heavy.
    →They found the box very heavy

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